\"Problem/Issue: Europe\'s position in the production of biopolymers from biomass and by-products is limited to a few polymers, while the demand for them is among the largest in the world, which means that they have to be imported, mainly from Asia and South America...
\"Problem/Issue: Europe\'s position in the production of biopolymers from biomass and by-products is limited to a few polymers, while the demand for them is among the largest in the world, which means that they have to be imported, mainly from Asia and South America. Surprisingly, Europe has a lot of world leader chemical companies, with a particular strength and great potential in the field of fine chemicals and building blocks. The development of chemicals and materials from lignocellulosic biomass is a particularly important area in terms of research. However, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into a real chemical platform is not trivial and today it has still little commercial viability. For instance, several processes have been studied at R&D level, but none have been industrially implemented yet.
Objectives: The main objective of REHAP is the transformation of agro-forestry residues into new sustainable and eco-efficient derivatives, which comprise building blocks (2,3- and 1,4-BDO), high-performance additives (superplasticizers and flame retardants) and biobased polymeric resins (biophenolics and NIPUs), through innovative cost-effective processes to demonstrate their potential use in several products at an industrial level and their application in sectors like Construction.
All the processes, materials and products will be demonstrated at industrial scale and finally will be used for making a prototype of a feasible industrialized constructive system, proof of concept for \"\"green buildings\"\" technologies (TRL 7). Sustainability and economic feasibility will be evaluated using life-cycle assessment and cost-benefit and market analysis. Other objectives of the project are:
â€¢Environmental: Utilisation of fossil resources to be reduced between 80 and 100%. 30-50% reduction in energy use in the process industry and 25-50% reduction in CO2 emissions
â€¢Economics: Cost reduction of biophenolic resins and BDO up to 20% compared to commercial competing materials Strengthen industrial competitiveness and growth of companies across Europe. Possibility for replication of the processes and creation of new market opportunities
â€¢Social: Creation of almost 400 new Jobs.\"
WP1: Identification of most relevant agroforestry input sources with respect to the European arisings and the biochemical composition Literature and database review concerning the state-of-the-art of agroforestry waste management. Publication of a paper entitled â€œAssessment of agroforestry residue potentials for the bioeconomy in the European Unionâ€ in the International Journal of Cleaner Production. Development of a forecasting model for the future arisings of biomass for all NUTS 1 regions in Europe. Analysis results of the selected biomass samples for REHAP (TAPPI, NERL and TGA methods). Predictive Kinetic Models (based on TGA) to determine the fractional weight composition of cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin-tannin in agroforestry biomass.
WP2: Optimization of the purification processes to obtain lignin, tannins and sugars from softwood bark.
Analysis of the fermentability of the 2nd generation sugars (2G).
Optimization of the process to obtain bioethanol for the production of lignin rich residues from straw and woody biomass.
Development of fractionation/purification of lignins from the PROESA process residue and directly from raw materials. Study of the hydrolysis of carbohydrates fraction to obtain fermentable sugar stream from the PROESA process residue.
Upscaling of the protocols developed at lab scale to kgs-Tns scale. The required materials for WP3 have been produced at lab scale for the first developments and will be produced at pilot-industrial scale for October 2018.
WP3: Definition of requirements for 1k and 2k adhesives, phenolic resins and superplasticizers.
The following developments are partially achieved:
Preparation of NiPUs based on 2,3 BDO produced in WP2. Modification of tannins and lignins for phenolic resins. Modification of polyols for the preparation of fire retardants. Preparation of polyesterpolyols from bio raw materials. Modification of comercial lignins by alternative routes to obtain superplaticizers. Development of an aerobic fermentation process of lignocellulosic sugars obtained in WP2 and a 2,3-BDO recovery procedure from the fermentation broth.
WP6: Identification of the processes on which the E-LCA, the LCCA and the resource efficiency analyses will be focused. Preparation of the preliminary block flow diagrams of the targeted processes. Market analysis (D6.4) of the main products developed in the project (PU foams and adhesives, phenolic resins, plasticizers for concrete and fire retardants).
WP7: Creation of the Website (D7.1, www.rehap.eu) and video with the project idea. Design of elements for project branding and development of printed materials. Participation in several conferences and meetings (EUBCE, WCCE10, ECAB4, Biotech 2017, ICBBM17, LCM 2017.
Expected results and progress beyond state of the art:
R1: Extraction and purification of Tannin/sugars: REHAP has optimized and up-scaled the process to obtain Tannins from European softwood species (Norway spruce).
R2: Extraction and purification of lignin from the hydrolysis residue: The process to obtain pure lignin from the residue has been developed with yields between 35-50% depending of the raw material.
R3: Bio2,3-BDO/1,4-BDO and polymers based on sugars: Demonstration of the production of 1,4-BDO and 2,3-BDO from 2G sugars (Agroforestry residues). In this period, the fermentability has been demonstrated at lab scale and the work is ongoing for the upscaling.
R4: Biophenolic resins: The purification of tannins and lignin has been implemented. The formulation of the resins with these products is ongoing.
R5: Lignin modification for improved plasticizing of cement and concrete: The developed method for the purification of lignin form Poplar, conducted to a very pure and defined starting material for the modifications. Sequent chemical reactions will optimise the plasticizing properties to suit green concrete for precast elements.
R6: Fire performance of biowaste derivatives: The first results with comercial sugars have been obtained.
R7: BioPUR foams: The first polyesterpoliols from bioderivatives have been produced in this period.
1. Reduction of fossil based materials (in thousand tons): Biophenolic resins for wood panels (1,177), Superplasticizers for cements (500), Rigid bio-PU insulation (4,675), Adhesives for construction sector (2,000), Butanediol intermediate chemical (>2,000).
2. Reduction of energy use and CO2 emissions (in %): Biophenolic resins for wood panels (40/50), Superplasticizers for cements (30/50), Rigid bio-PU insulation (50/25), Adhesives for construction sector (50/25), Butanediol intermediate chemical (30/50).
3. Demonstration of the economical viability of the developed processes and products: Biophenolic resins for wood panels (cost savings of 19%), Superplasticizers for cements (price range should be 2.4-4.8 â‚¬/m3), Rigid bio-PU insulation (price reduction of 6%), Adhesives for construction sector (additional outlay willing to pay by customers is 5%), Butanediol intermediate chemical (price range should be 1,630-1,745 â‚¬/ton).
4. Direct new jobs in the involved companies of the project (70) and indirect new jobs due to the activities of the project (>300).
More info: http://www.rehap.eu/.