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Deploying High Capacity Dense Small Cell Heterogeneous Networks

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






Project "DECADE" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
postcode: 581 83
website: n.a.

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Sweden [SE]
 Project website
 Total cost 634˙500 €
 EC max contribution 634˙500 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.3.3. (Stimulating innovation by means of cross-fertilisation of knowledge)
 Code Call H2020-MSCA-RISE-2014
 Funding Scheme MSCA-RISE
 Starting year 2015
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2015-08-01   to  2019-07-31


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 
1    LINKOPINGS UNIVERSITET SE (LINKOPING) coordinator 175˙500.00
2    IQUADRAT INFORMATICA SL ES (BARCELONA) participant 189˙000.00
4    THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD UK (SHEFFIELD) participant 135˙000.00


 Project objective

Broadband mobile networks are experiencing exponential traffic growth. It is predicted that this trend will continue in the next five to ten years with an estimated compound annual growth rate of 0.6 to 1.0. Hence the traffic (mostly data) carried by a mobile operator’s network in 2022 could be over 1000 times of that in 2012. This traffic growth presents a huge challenge to both the mobile industry and to academic researchers.

Along with increased spectrum efficiency, spectrum bandwidth expansion and traffic offloading through WiFi, small cell deployment is regarded as one of the most promising ways to meet the use of broadband mobile service in both outdoor and in particular indoor scenarios in the next decade. The deployment of small cells in a macrocell coverage area leads to a multi-tier heterogeneous network (HetNet), in which a mix of access node types, such as macrocell, femtocell and relay, will co-exist. Despite the current research and development on small cell/HetNet from both industry and academia, there are still many challenges to be addressed and questions to be answered for successful small cell and HetNet deployment. These challenges range from the lack of fundamental understanding of HetNet network capacity to the need of Radio Access Network (RAN) Planning and Optimisation (PO) tool for HetNet deployment involving both indoor and outdoor scenarios. The DECADE project adopts the scheme of Research and Innovation Staff Exchange (RISE), with the effect of inter-sectorial efforts and knowledge integration to tackle the challenges in HetNet planning and optimization. The research consists in fundamental capacity analysis, system modeling, algorithm development, and performance engineering for HetNets. In addition, DECADE serves as a solid platform to promote long-term collaboration between academia and industry collaboration in a rapidly evolving area of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Europe.


List of deliverables.
DECADE training school Other 2020-02-07 12:44:05
Project workshop, year 4 Other 2020-02-07 12:44:05
Project workshop, year 3 Other 2020-02-07 12:44:05
Small cell backhauling design guidelines Documents, reports 2020-02-07 12:44:05
System modelling of HetNets for Capacity Analysis Documents, reports 2020-02-07 12:44:04
Project workshop, year 1 Other 2020-02-07 12:44:04
Project workshop, year 2 Other 2020-02-07 12:44:04
Study of HetNet backhaul solutions Documents, reports 2020-02-07 12:44:04
New spectrum for HetNet small cell deployment Documents, reports 2020-02-07 12:44:04
Mathematical formulations and optimisation for HetNet range assignment Documents, reports 2020-02-07 12:44:04
HetNet backhauling with Wi-Fi mesh Documents, reports 2020-02-07 12:44:04

Take a look to the deliverables list in detail:  detailed list of DECADE deliverables.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2019 Ran Tao, Wuling Liu, Xiaoli Chu, Jie Zhang
An Energy Saving Small Cell Sleeping Mechanism With Cell Range Expansion in Heterogeneous Networks
published pages: 2451-2463, ISSN: 1536-1276, DOI: 10.1109/twc.2019.2895028
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 18/5 2020-02-07
2019 Bolin Chen, Nikolaos Pappas, Zheng Chen, Di Yuan, Jie Zhang
Throughput and Delay Analysis of LWA With Bursty Traffic and Randomized Flow Splitting
published pages: 24667-24678, ISSN: 2169-3536, DOI: 10.1109/access.2019.2897017
IEEE Access 7 2020-02-07
2019 Grit Ecker, Di Yuan, Arie M.C.A. Koster, Anke Schmeink
Accurate optimization models for interference constrained bandwidth allocation in cellular networks
published pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0305-0548, DOI: 10.1016/j.cor.2018.08.011
Computers & Operations Research 101 2020-02-07
2019 Bolin Chen, Lei You, Di Yuan, Nikolaos Pappas, Jie Zhang
Resource Optimization for Joint LWA and LTE-U in Load-Coupled and Multi-Cell Networks
published pages: 330-333, ISSN: 1089-7798, DOI: 10.1109/lcomm.2018.2883945
IEEE Communications Letters 23/2 2020-02-07
2019 Ioannis Avgouleas, Di Yuan, Nikolaos Pappas, Vangelis Angelakis
Virtual Network Functions Scheduling under Delay-Weighted Pricing
published pages: 1-1, ISSN: 2576-3156, DOI: 10.1109/lnet.2019.2937237
IEEE Networking Letters 2020-02-07
2019 Doris Benda, Xiaoli Chu, Sumei Sun, Tony Q. S. Quek, Alastair Buckley
Renewable Energy Sharing Among Base Stations as a Min-Cost-Max-Flow Optimization Problem
published pages: 67-78, ISSN: 2473-2400, DOI: 10.1109/tgcn.2018.2876005
IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking 3/1 2020-02-07
2017 Lei You, Di Yuan, Nikolaos Pappas, Peter Varbrand
Energy-Aware Wireless Relay Selection in Load-Coupled OFDMA Cellular Networks
published pages: 144-147, ISSN: 1089-7798, DOI: 10.1109/LCOMM.2016.2615604
IEEE Communications Letters 21/1 2020-02-07
2016 Yue Wu, Siyi Wang, Wuling Liu, Weisi Guo, Xiaoli Chu
Iunius: A Cross-Layer Peer-to-Peer System With Device-to-Device Communications
published pages: 7005-7017, ISSN: 1536-1276, DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2016.2594225
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 15/10 2020-02-07
2017 L. You and D. Yuan
Joint CoMP-Cell Selection and Resource Allocation with Fronthaul-Constrained C-RAN
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
Proceedings of International Workshop on Resource Allocation, Cooperation and Competition in Wireless Networks 2020-02-07
2017 Lei You, Di Yuan
Load Optimization With User Association in Cooperative and Load-Coupled LTE Networks
published pages: 3218-3231, ISSN: 1536-1276, DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2017.2676762
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 16/5 2020-02-07
2016 Bleron Klaiqi, Xiaoli Chu, Jie Zhang
Energy-Efficient and Low Signaling Overhead Cooperative Relaying With Proactive Relay Subset Selection
published pages: 1001-1015, ISSN: 0090-6778, DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2016.2521832
IEEE Transactions on Communications 64/3 2020-02-07
2017 B. Chen, J. Chen, J- Zhang
Scenario-Oriented Small Cell Network Design for LTE-LAA and Wi-Fi Coexistence on 5 GHz
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
Proceedings of IEEE CAMAD 2020-02-07
2017 A. Arvanitaki, N. Pappas
Modeling of a UAV-based Data Collection System
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
Proceedings of IEEE CAMAD 2020-02-07
2017 B. Chen, Z. Chen, N. Pappas, Di Yuan, J. Zhang
Modeling and Analysis of MPTCP Proxy-based LTE-WLAN Path Aggregation
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM 2020-02-07
2018 Bolin Chen ; Zheng Chen ; Nikolaos Pappas ; Di Yuan ; Jie Zhang
Bringing LTE to Unlicensed Spectrum: Technical Solutions and Deployment Considerations
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI: 10.1109/CAMAD.2018.8514992
IEEE CAMAD 2018 2020-02-07
2018 Nikolaos Pappas, Jeongho Jeon, Di Yuan, Apostolos Traganitis, and Anthony Ephremides
Wireless network-level partial relay cooperation: A stable throughput analysis
published pages: 93-101, ISSN: 1229-2370, DOI: 10.1109/JCN.2018.000009
Journal of Communications and Networks 20/1 2020-02-07
2018 Eftychia Datsika, Angelos Antonopoulos, Di Yuan, Christos Verikoukis
Matching Theory for Over-the-Top Service Provision in 5G Networks
published pages: 5452-5464, ISSN: 1536-1276, DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2018.2844196
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 17/8 2020-02-07
2018 Nikolaos Pappas, Zheng Chen, Ioannis Dimitriou
Throughput and Delay Analysis of Wireless Caching Helper Systems With Random Availability
published pages: 9667-9678, ISSN: 2169-3536, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2801246
IEEE Access 6 2020-02-07
2018 Doris Benda, Sumei Sun, Xiaoli Chu, Tony Q. S. Quek, Alastair Buckley
PV Cell Angle Optimization for Energy Generation-Consumption Matching in a Solar Powered Cellular Network
published pages: 40-48, ISSN: 2473-2400, DOI: 10.1109/TGCN.2017.2772910
IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking 2/1 2020-02-07
2018 Yuan Gao, Haonan Hu, Yue Wu, Xiaoli Chu, Jie Zhang
Energy efficient and fair resource allocation for LTE-unlicensed uplink networks: A two-sided matching approach with partial information
published pages: e3500, ISSN: 2161-3915, DOI: 10.1002/ett.3500
Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies 29/10 2020-02-07
2018 Lei You ; Qi Liao ; Nikolaos Pappas ; Di Yuan
Resource Optimization with Flexible Numerology and Frame Structure for Heterogeneous Services
published pages: 1-1, ISSN: 1089-7798, DOI: 10.1109/LCOMM.2018.2865314
IEEE Communications Letters 2020-02-07
2018 Ioannis Dimitriou, Nikolaos Pappas
Stable Throughput and Delay Analysis of a Random Access Network With Queue-Aware Transmission
published pages: 3170-3184, ISSN: 1536-1276, DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2018.2808195
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 17/5 2020-02-07
2018 Bleron Klaiqi, Xiaoli Chu, Jie Zhang
Energy- and Spectral-Efficient Adaptive Forwarding Strategy for Multi-Hop Device-to-Device Communications Overlaying Cellular Networks
published pages: 5684-5699, ISSN: 1536-1276, DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2018.2846222
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 17/9 2020-02-07
2019 Yuan Gao, Yue Wu, Haonan Hu, Xiaoli Chu, Jie Zhang
Licensed and Unlicensed Bands Allocation for Cellular Users: A Matching-Based Approach
published pages: 969-972, ISSN: 2162-2337, DOI: 10.1109/lwc.2019.2904059
IEEE Wireless Communications Letters 8/3 2020-02-07

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