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The 4th Geneva Convention’s Drafting History as the origin of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and Duty to Prevent (D2P).

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






 REQUE 2 project word cloud

Explore the words cloud of the REQUE 2 project. It provides you a very rough idea of what is the project "REQUE 2" about.

norms    framework    ban    materials    lifting    advocated    alarming    drafting    responsibility    envisages    war    france    duty    source    unpublished    questions    first    hitherto    tendency    contested    oversight    existence    judicial    exponential    casualties    conflict    drafters    uncover    endorsement    agenda    nature    switzerland    conflicts    civilian    armed    north    humanitarian    protection    protect    comprehension    middle    actors    human    circles    attributed    notably    intentions    unprecedented    occupation    policy    events    pushed    date    wwii    exists    alongside    uncovering    geneva    limit    conventions    generate    light    historical    red    africa    convention    disclosure    uk    sources    irregular    international    national    fighting    tool    motivated    original    1949    goes    custodian    archives    regarding    innovative    erosion    prevent    civilians    accepting    4th    deeply    interpretation    limits    east    military    shed    point    cross    forces    attitudes    conduct    provides    surge    law    opening   

Project "REQUE 2" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
city: VERONA
postcode: 37129

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Italy [IT]
 Project website
 Total cost 180˙277 €
 EC max contribution 180˙277 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.3.2. (Nurturing excellence by means of cross-border and cross-sector mobility)
 Code Call H2020-MSCA-IF-2015
 Funding Scheme MSCA-IF-EF-ST
 Starting year 2016
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2016-09-01   to  2018-08-31


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 
1    UNIVERSITA DEGLI STUDI DI VERONA IT (VERONA) coordinator 180˙277.00


 Project objective

The objective of this project is to uncover the source materials of current humanitarian norms (Responsibility to Protect and Duty to Prevent) within the first and most important tool of International Humanitarian Law – the 4th Geneva Convention for the Protection of Civilians (1949). Specifically, this project aims to generate a comprehensive historical and legal account of the drafting process and of the 4th Geneva Convention, as to date, no such comprehensive account exists. The research agenda envisages an innovative Multi factor framework approach, examining alongside the Red Cross archives in Geneva, the important National Archives of the US, France, the UK and Switzerland (the Conventions’ Custodian), who all advocated and pushed for the Convention’s endorsement after WWII. The recent opening of national archives, following the lifting of the 50 year disclosure ban provides unprecedented access to hitherto unpublished materials, which could shed much-needed light upon our comprehension of the Convention’s terms and legal interpretation, based upon the original intentions of the drafters. With the interpretation of this convention deeply contested in both judicial and policy circles, uncovering the original drafting sources of the 4th Geneva Convention’s, could shed much needed light on questions regarding the nature of military occupation, of judicial oversight over armed conflict, and of the attitudes to be attributed to irregular fighting forces and non state actors. Recent events, most notably in the Middle East and North Africa point to an alarming tendency of the erosion of any limits to armed conduct. This process goes hand in hand with the exponential surge in civilian casualties in these armed conflicts. Uncovering the original sources which motivated drafters to limit war – while accepting its existence as a feature of human nature is all the more timely and relevant today.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2019 Gilad Ben-Nun
The Fourth Geneva Convention or Civilians: The History of International Humanitarian Law
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
2020 Annalisa Ciampi (ed.)
History and International Law: An Intertwined Relationship
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
2020 Gilad Ben-Nun
The Soviet Impacts on the 4th Geneva Convention for Civilians of 1949
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
The GWZO Handbook on East-European Contributions to Modern International Law 2019-05-09
2019 Gilad Ben-Nun
How ‘Protection for All’ , as in the Geneva Conventions\' Common Article 3 made its way into the 4th Geneva Convention for Civilians.
published pages: , ISSN: 1816-3831, DOI:
International Review of the Red Cross 3 issues per year 2019-05-09
2020 Gilad Ben-Nun
Nissim Mevorah – the Soviet Drafter of the 4th Geneva Convention of 1949
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
The GWZO Handbook on East-European Contributions to Modern International Law 2019-05-09
2020 Gilad Ben-Nun
The Geneva Conventions: From Eurocentric – to Universal 1864-1977
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
The GWZO Handbook on East-European Contributions to Modern International Law 2019-05-09

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