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An exploration into the feasibility of simultaneously achieving ‘No Net Loss’ of biodiversity and ecosystem services, in an uncertain and changing world

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






Project "NNL" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
address: NORREGADE 10
postcode: 1165

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Denmark [DK]
 Project website
 Total cost 200˙194 €
 EC max contribution 200˙194 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.3.2. (Nurturing excellence by means of cross-border and cross-sector mobility)
 Code Call H2020-MSCA-IF-2014
 Funding Scheme MSCA-IF-EF-ST
 Starting year 2015
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2015-09-01   to  2017-09-15


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 
1    KOBENHAVNS UNIVERSITET DK (KOBENHAVN) coordinator 200˙194.00


 Project objective

We are evidently currently witnessing an ongoing loss of global biodiversity, caused largely by anthropogenic activity, and thought to be resulting in a loss of associated ecosystem services. However, the economic development that often leads to net loss of ecosystem services also provides benefits to humanity. An optimal balance between development and biodiversity conservation must be found.

A promising new policy principle is ‘No Net Loss’ (NNL) – giving rise to mechanisms in which biodiversity losses from development are measured, and conservation interventions implemented that fully compensate for those losses, resulting in no net loss of biodiversity alongside development. However, it has been suggested that biodiversity and ecosystem services can not always both be maximised. Further, NNL is not a trivial objective when ecological dynamics (e.g. climate change) and social dynamics (e.g. institutional change) are taken into account. It is crucial that we establish whether there are general principles that can be applied to achieving NNL across different ecosystem types, and if not, what are the most significant peculiarities to each system.

We propose to begin by creating for the first time a database of existing NNL interventions, as well as developing frames of reference for NNL interventions in a set of case study ecosystems. Systems are likely to include both European and other countries.

Building on this empirical basis, we will develop bespoke simulation models (using a novel implementation of the Management Strategy Evaluation framework) for each ecosystem, and explore implementation of different NNL mechanisms. We will consider feedback between social and ecological system components, drivers of change such as climate change, and sources of uncertainty.

The outputs will allow us to determine whether there are general principles concerning how and when NNL of both biodiversity and ecosystem services can be achieved in a given dynamic system.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2017 Joseph W. Bull, Samuel P. Lloyd, Niels Strange
Implementation Gap between the Theory and Practice of Biodiversity Offset Multipliers
published pages: , ISSN: 1755-263X, DOI: 10.1111/conl.12335
Conservation Letters 2019-06-17
2016 J.W. Bull, N. Jobstvogt, A. Böhnke-Henrichs, A. Mascarenhas, N. Sitas, C. Baulcomb, C.K. Lambini, M. Rawlins, H. Baral, J. Zähringer, E. Carter-Silk, M.V. Balzan, J.O. Kenter, T. Häyhä, K. Petz, R. Koss
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats: A SWOT analysis of the ecosystem services framework
published pages: 99-111, ISSN: 2212-0416, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.11.012
Ecosystem Services 17 2019-06-17
2016 J. W. Bull, M. Maron
How humans drive speciation as well as extinction
published pages: 20160600, ISSN: 0962-8452, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0600
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 283/1833 2019-06-17
2016 Joseph W. Bull, Ascelin Gordon, James E. M. Watson, Martine Maron
Seeking convergence on the key concepts in ‘no net loss’ policy
published pages: 1686-1693, ISSN: 0021-8901, DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12726
Journal of Applied Ecology 53/6 2019-06-17
2016 Raimundo Real, A. Márcia Barbosa, Joseph W. Bull
Species Distributions, Quantum Theory, and the Enhancement of Biodiversity Measures
published pages: syw072, ISSN: 1063-5157, DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/syw072
Systematic Biology 2019-06-17
2017 Joseph William Bull, Anna Lou Abatayo, Niels Strange
Counterintuitive Proposals for Trans-boundary Ecological Compensation Under ‘No Net Loss’ Biodiversity Policy
published pages: 185-193, ISSN: 0921-8009, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.06.010
Ecological Economics 142 2019-06-17
2017 Sally A. Keith, Joseph W. Bull
Animal culture impacts species\' capacity to realise climate-driven range shifts
published pages: 296-304, ISSN: 0906-7590, DOI: 10.1111/ecog.02481
Ecography 40/2 2019-06-17
2016 Martine Maron, Christopher D. Ives, Heini Kujala, Joseph W. Bull, Fleur J. F. Maseyk, Sarah Bekessy, Ascelin Gordon, James E.M. Watson, Pia E. Lentini, Philip Gibbons, Hugh P. Possingham, Richard J. Hobbs, David A. Keith, Brendan A. Wintle, Megan C. Evans
Taming a Wicked Problem: Resolving Controversies in Biodiversity Offsetting
published pages: 489-498, ISSN: 0006-3568, DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biw038
BioScience 66/6 2019-06-17
2017 J.W. Bull, S. Brownlie
The transition from No Net Loss to a Net Gain of biodiversity is far from trivial
published pages: 53-59, ISSN: 0030-6053, DOI: 10.1017/s0030605315000861
Oryx 51/01 2019-06-17

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