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LIIT-ChR2

Structural and mechanistic study of ion transport in Channelrhodopsin-2

Total Cost €

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EC-Contrib. €

0

Partnership

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 LIIT-ChR2 project word cloud

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absorbance    group    photochemical    contrast    channels    action    damaged    structure    induces    free    closely    hence    molecular    circuits    transient    qm    model    microscopy    algae    observations    reversibly    hoc    cryo    aring    evidences    function    dark    environment    energy    little    mixture    neurons    opens    theoretical    structures    elucidating    matching    map    contains    sensitivity    locations    pass    sensory    activation    structural    ad    sampling    photoreceptors    mechanics    green    retinas    quantum    restore    conformational    found    brain    spectroscopic    halorhodopsins    proteins    channelrhodopsin    retinal    mm    inactivation    projection    mechanisms    channel    light    channelrhodopsins    species    ions    rhodopsin    chimera    bacteriorhodopsins    force    visual    electron    limited    protein    transport    moiety    turn    enhanced    illumination    groups    bayesian    simulated    experimental    optogenetics    desensitized    disorders    chr1    validated    biophysics    mechanism    neuronal    close    depolarized    expressing    ray    chr2    host    ion    closed    cycle    opening   

Project "LIIT-ChR2" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.

Coordinator
MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FORDERUNG DER WISSENSCHAFTEN EV 

Organization address
address: HOFGARTENSTRASSE 8
city: MUENCHEN
postcode: 80539
website: n.a.

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Germany [DE]
 Project website http://www.biophys.mpg.de/en/tb/channelrhodopsin-2.html
 Total cost 159˙460 €
 EC max contribution 159˙460 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.3.2. (Nurturing excellence by means of cross-border and cross-sector mobility)
 Code Call H2020-MSCA-IF-2014
 Funding Scheme MSCA-IF-EF-ST
 Starting year 2015
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2015-04-01   to  2017-03-31

 Partnership

Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 
1    MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FORDERUNG DER WISSENSCHAFTEN EV DE (MUENCHEN) coordinator 159˙460.00

Map

 Project objective

Channelrhodopsins are type-I rhodopsin proteins found in green algae that function as sensory photoreceptors and turn into ion channels under illumination. Upon light absorbance, the retinal moiety induces a conformational change on the protein that opens a channel through which ions can pass. Neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can be depolarized rapidly and reversibly by illumination, hence allowing control of the activation/inactivation of neurons in specific locations of the brain. For this reason, ChR2 has been used widely in optogenetics to study neuronal circuits and disorders in the brain, and to restore light sensitivity and visual capabilities in damaged retinas. However, in contrast to closely related bacteriorhodopsins or halorhodopsins, very little is known about their structure, light cycle and mechanism of action. The current structural evidences of ChR2 is limited to 1) the 6 Å projection map obtained by cryo-electron microscopy that contains a mixture of light (open channel) and dark (closed channel) states; and 2) the 2.3 Å X-ray structure of the dark state of a ChR1/ChR2 chimera. In the present proposal, we aim at elucidating the structure, properties and mechanism of action of the transient species of ChR2 during its photochemical cycle by means of theoretical methods and in close collaboration with the experimental biophysics groups of the host institute. The mechanisms of ion transport and channel opening will be simulated by enhanced sampling and free energy methods. Specific quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) force matching force field will be generated ad hoc for the retinal moiety in the ChR2 environment. The model structures generated for the closed, open, and desensitized states will be validated 1) by comparison of the QM/MM spectroscopic properties of the model with experimental observations; and 2) by comparison to electron microscopy structures using a Bayesian analysis method recently developed in the host group.

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