Opendata, web and dolomites


‘Challenging Time(s)’ – A New Approach to Written Sources for Ancient Egyptian Chronology

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






 CT project word cloud

Explore the words cloud of the CT project. It provides you a very rough idea of what is the project "CT" about.

sequences    commentary    did    principles    31    genuine    royalty    division    historical    fact    excavations    kinglist    kings    age    dated    greek    dates    basis    shown    mediterranean    counterparts    biographic    eastern    shed    time    egyptian    280    never    renderings    inscriptional    memory    civilisation    linguistic    archaeological    context    textual    firm    genealogies    egypt    critically    14c    writing    specialists    significance    pyramid    first    egyptological    chronology    material    cooperation    pilot    reigns    gained    manetho    sciences    names    commoners    reconsidered    international    introduce    millennia    scaffolding    educated    perception    royal    ago    dynasties    thread    inscriptions    prosopographic    despite    east    kinglists    until    bayesian    gather    annals    ancient    pillars    assignment    historian    guesswork    near    history    ptolemaic    200    bc    hieroglyphic    culture    light    basic    officials    golden    entire    chronological    egyptologists    scheme    sources    interpretation    criticism    data    interpreted   

Project "CT" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
city: WIEN
postcode: 1010

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Austria [AT]
 Project website
 Total cost 1˙499˙992 €
 EC max contribution 1˙499˙992 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
 Code Call ERC-2017-STG
 Funding Scheme ERC-STG
 Starting year 2018
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2018-03-01   to  2023-02-28


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 


 Project objective

The chronology of ancient Egypt is a golden thread for the memory of early civilisation. It is not only the scaffolding of four millennia of Egyptian history, but also one of the pillars of the chronology of the entire ancient Near East and eastern Mediterranean. The basic division of Egyptian history into 31 dynasties was introduced by Manetho, an Egyptian historian (c. 280 BC) writing in Greek for the Ptolemaic kings. Despite the fact that this scheme was adopted by Egyptologists 200 years ago and remains in use until today, there has never been an in-depth analysis of Manetho’s kinglist and of the names in it. Until now, identifying the Greek renderings of royal names with their hieroglyphic counterparts was more or less educated guesswork. It is thus essential to introduce the principles of textual criticism, to evaluate royal names on a firm linguistic basis and to provide for the first time ever an Egyptological commentary on Manetho’s kinglist. Just like Manetho did long ago, now it is necessary to gather all inscriptional evidence on Egyptian history: dated inscriptions, biographic and prosopographic data of royalty and commoners, genuine Egyptian kinglists and annals. These data must be critically evaluated in context, their assignment to specific reigns must be reconsidered, and genealogies and sequences of officials must be reviewed. The results are not only important for Egyptian historical chronology and for our understanding of the Egyptian perception of history, but also for the interpretation of chronological data gained from archaeological excavations (material culture) and sciences (14C dates, which are interpreted on the basis of historical chronology, e.g., via ‘Bayesian modelling’). The applicant has already shown the significance of this approach in pilot studies on the pyramid age. Further work in cooperation with international specialists will thus shed new light on ancient sources in order to determine the chronology of early civilisation.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2018 Gundacker, Roman
The Descent of Kawab and Hetepheres II
published pages: 65-92, ISSN: 0344-385X, DOI:
göttinger miszellen 256 2019-10-29
2018 Roman Gundacker
Lemma Manetho, in: M.Bauks, K. Koenen (eds.), Das wissenschaftliche Bibellexikon im Internet, Nov. 2018
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
M.Bauks, K. Koenen (eds.), Das wissenschaftliche Bibellexikon im Internet. 2019-10-14

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