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LOFAR SIGNED

Searching for The Origin of Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos with LOFAR

Total Cost €

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EC-Contrib. €

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Partnership

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Project "LOFAR" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.

Coordinator
VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT BRUSSEL 

Organization address
address: PLEINLAAN 2
city: BRUSSEL
postcode: 1050
website: www.vub.ac.be

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Belgium [BE]
 Total cost 1˙500˙000 €
 EC max contribution 1˙500˙000 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
 Code Call ERC-2014-STG
 Funding Scheme ERC-STG
 Starting year 2015
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2015-06-01   to  2020-05-31

 Partnership

Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 
1    VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT BRUSSEL BE (BRUSSEL) coordinator 1˙500˙000.00

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 Project objective

The origin of cosmic rays remains one of the largest mysteries in astrophysics. Innovative and accurate radio measurements of cosmic rays and neutrinos with LOFAR promise to provide new answers. It is generally believed that ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are produced in extragalactic sources like gamma- ray bursts or active galactic nuclei, while the lower energy cosmic rays come from our own Galaxy. At what energy this transition takes place is still unknown. Here we focus on disentangling Galactic and extragalactic components by studying the mass composition between 10^17 and 10^18 eV, a regime that is also crucial for understanding the origin of the extraterrestrial neutrinos detected by IceCube. We do this with LOFAR, the first radio telescope that can detect individual cosmic rays with hundreds of antennas. This incredible level of detail allowed us to finally understand the complicated radiation mechanism and to perform the first-ever accurate mass analysis based on radio measurements. Our first data reveal a strong proton component below 10^18 eV, suggesting an early transition to an extragalactic component. With upgrades to our detector and techniques we will be able to improve our sample size by an order of magnitude, resolve more mass components, and identify the origin of high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. The technique may be scaled up to higher energies, measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory, where mass information is needed to correlate cosmic rays with their astrophysical sources and to confirm the nature of the cutoff at ~10^19.6 eV. We can even search for particles beyond the GZK limit. With the Westerbork telescope we have already set the best limit on cosmic rays and neutrinos above 10^23 eV. With LOFAR we will achieve a much better sensitivity at lower energies, also probing for new physics, like the decays of cosmic strings predicted by supersymmetric theories.

 Publications

year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2016 A. Corstanje, S. Buitink, J. E. Enriquez, H. Falcke, J. R. Hörandel, M. Krause, A. Nelles, J. P. Rachen, P. Schellart, O. Scholten, S. ter Veen, S. Thoudam, T. N. G. Trinh
Timing calibration and spectral cleaning of LOFAR time series data
published pages: A41, ISSN: 0004-6361, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201527809
Astronomy & Astrophysics 590 2019-05-29
2016 O. Scholten, T. N. G. Trinh, A. Bonardi, S. Buitink, P. Correa, A. Corstanje, Q. Dorosti Hasankiadeh, H. Falcke, J. R. Hörandel, P. Mitra, K. Mulrey, A. Nelles, J. P. Rachen, L. Rossetto, P. Schellart, S. Thoudam, S. ter Veen, K. D. de Vries, T. Winchen
Measurement of the circular polarization in radio emission from extensive air showers confirms emission mechanisms
published pages: , ISSN: 2470-0010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.103010
Physical Review D 94/10 2019-05-29
2016 S. Buitink, A. Corstanje, H. Falcke, J. R. Hörandel, T. Huege, A. Nelles, J. P. Rachen, L. Rossetto, P. Schellart, O. Scholten, S. ter Veen, S. Thoudam, T. N. G. Trinh, J. Anderson, A. Asgekar, I. M. Avruch, M. E. Bell, M. J. Bentum, G. Bernardi, P. Best, A. Bonafede, F. Breitling, J. W. Broderick, W. N. Brouw, M. Brüggen, H. R. Butcher, D. Carbone, B. Ciardi, J. E. Conway, F. de Gasperin, E. de Geus, A. Deller, R.-J. Dettmar, G. van Diepen, S. Duscha, J. Eislöffel, D. Engels, J. E. Enriquez, R. A. Fallows, R. Fender, C. Ferrari, W. Frieswijk, M. A. Garrett, J. M. Grießmeier, A. W. Gunst, M. P. van Haarlem, T. E. Hassall, G. Heald, J. W. T. Hessels, M. Hoeft, A. Horneffer, M. Iacobelli, H. Intema, E. Juette, A. Karastergiou, V. I. Kondratiev, M. Kramer, M. Kuniyoshi, G. Kuper, J. van Leeuwen, G. M. Loose, P. Maat, G. Mann, S. Markoff, R. McFadden, D. McKay-Bukowski, J. P. McKean, M. Mevius, D. D. Mulcahy, H. Munk, M. J. Norden, E. Orru, H. Paas, M. Pandey-Pommier, V. N. Pandey, M. Pietka, R. Pizzo, A. G. Polatidis, W. Reich, H. J. A. Röttgering, A. M. M. Scaife, D. J. Schwarz, M. Serylak, J. Sluman, O. Smirnov, B. W. Stappers, M. Steinmetz, A. Stewart, J. Swinbank, M. Tagger, Y. Tang, C. Tasse, M. C. Toribio, R. Vermeulen, C. Vocks, C. Vogt, R. J. van Weeren, R. A. M. J. Wijers, S. J. Wijnholds, M. W. Wise, O. Wucknitz, S. Yatawatta, P. Zarka, J. A. Zensus
A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 1017–1017.5 electronvolts from radio observations
published pages: 70-73, ISSN: 0028-0836, DOI: 10.1038/nature16976
Nature 531/7592 2019-05-29
2015 A. Nelles, J. R. Hörandel, T. Karskens, M. Krause, S. Buitink, A. Corstanje, J. E. Enriquez, M. Erdmann, H. Falcke, A. Haungs, R. Hiller, T. Huege, R. Krause, K. Link, M. J. Norden, J. P. Rachen, L. Rossetto, P. Schellart, O. Scholten, F. G. Schröder, S. ter Veen, S. Thoudam, T. N. G. Trinh, K. Weidenhaupt, S. J. Wijnholds, J. Anderson, L. Bähren, M. E. Bell, M. J. Bentum, P. Best, A. Bonafede, J. Bregman, W. N. Brouw, M. Brüggen, H. R. Butcher, D. Carbone, B. Ciardi, F. de Gasperin, S. Duscha, J. Eislöffel, R. A. Fallows, W. Frieswijk, M. A. Garrett, M. P. van Haarlem, G. Heald, M. Hoeft, A. Horneffer, M. Iacobelli, E. Juette, A. Karastergiou, J. Kohler, V. I. Kondratiev, M. Kuniyoshi, G. Kuper, J. van Leeuwen, P. Maat, R. McFadden, D. McKay-Bukowski, E. Orru, H. Paas, M. Pandey-Pommier, V. N. Pandey, R. Pizzo, A. G. Polatidis, W. Reich, H. Röttgering, D. Schwarz, M. Serylak, J. Sluman, O. Smirnov, C. Tasse, M. C. Toribio, R. Vermeulen, R. J. van Weeren, R. A. M. J. Wijers, O. Wucknitz, P. Zarka
Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR
published pages: P11005-P11005, ISSN: 1748-0221, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/10/11/P11005
Journal of Instrumentation 10/11 2019-05-29
2016 T. N. G. Trinh, O. Scholten, S. Buitink, A. M. van den Berg, A. Corstanje, U. Ebert, J. E. Enriquez, H. Falcke, J. R. Hörandel, C. Köhn, A. Nelles, J. P. Rachen, L. Rossetto, C. Rutjes, P. Schellart, S. Thoudam, S. ter Veen, K. D. de Vries
Influence of atmospheric electric fields on the radio emission from extensive air showers
published pages: , ISSN: 2470-0010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.023003
Physical Review D 93/2 2019-05-29
2016 S. Thoudam, J. P. Rachen, A. van Vliet, A. Achterberg, S. Buitink, H. Falcke, J. R. Hörandel
Cosmic-ray energy spectrum and composition up to the ankle: the case for a second Galactic component
published pages: A33, ISSN: 0004-6361, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201628894
Astronomy & Astrophysics 595 2019-05-29
2016 L Rossetto, S Buitink, A Corstanje, J E Enriquez, H Falcke, J R Hörandel, A Nelles, J P Rachen, P Schellart, O Scholten, S ter Veen, S Thoudam, T N G Trinh
Measurement of cosmic rays with LOFAR
published pages: 52035, ISSN: 1742-6588, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/718/5/052035
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 718 2019-05-29
2016 G. Maggi, S. Buitink, P. Correa, K. D. de Vries, G. Gentile, J. León Tavares, O. Scholten, N. van Eijndhoven, M. Vereecken, T. Winchen
Obscured flat spectrum radio active galactic nuclei as sources of high-energy neutrinos
published pages: , ISSN: 2470-0010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.103007
Physical Review D 94/10 2019-04-18
2017 T. N. G. Trinh, O. Scholten, A. Bonardi, S. Buitink, A. Corstanje, U. Ebert, J. E. Enriquez, H. Falcke, J. R. Hörandel, B. M. Hare, P. Mitra, K. Mulrey, A. Nelles, J. P. Rachen, L. Rossetto, C. Rutjes, P. Schellart, S. Thoudam, S. ter Veen, T. Winchen
Thunderstorm electric fields probed by extensive air showers through their polarized radio emission
published pages: , ISSN: 2470-0010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.083004
Physical Review D 95/8 2019-04-18
2017 A. Corstanje, A. Bonardi, S. Buitink, H. Falcke, J.R. Hörandel, P. Mitra, K. Mulrey, A. Nelles, J.P. Rachen, L. Rossetto, P. Schellart, O. Scholten, S. ter Veen, S. Thoudam, G. Trinh, T. Winchen
The effect of the atmospheric refractive index on the radio signal of extensive air showers
published pages: 23-29, ISSN: 0927-6505, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2017.01.009
Astroparticle Physics 89 2019-04-18
2018 Tobias Winchen, Stijn Buitink
Energy spectrum of fast second order Fermi accelerators as sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays
published pages: 25-31, ISSN: 0927-6505, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2018.04.004
Astroparticle Physics 102 2019-04-18

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