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Foundations of Cryptographic Hardness

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






Project "FOC" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
address: RAMAT AVIV
city: TEL AVIV
postcode: 69978

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Israel [IL]
 Project website
 Total cost 1˙239˙838 €
 EC max contribution 1˙239˙838 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
 Code Call ERC-2014-STG
 Funding Scheme ERC-STG
 Starting year 2015
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2015-03-01   to  2021-02-28


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 
1    TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY IL (TEL AVIV) coordinator 1˙239˙838.00


 Project objective

A fundamental research challenge in modern cryptography is understanding the necessary hardness assumptions required to build different cryptographic primitives. Attempts to answer this question have gained tremendous success in the last 20-30 years. Most notably, it was shown that many highly complicated primitives can be based on the mere existence of one-way functions (i.e., easy to compute and hard to invert), while other primitives cannot be based on such functions. This research has yielded fundamental tools and concepts such as randomness extractors and computational notions of entropy. Yet many of the most fundamental questions remain unanswered. Our first goal is to answer the fundamental question of whether cryptography can be based on the assumption that P not equal NP. Our second and third goals are to build a more efficient symmetric-key cryptographic primitives from one-way functions, and to establish effective methods for security amplification of cryptographic primitives. Succeeding in the second and last goals is likely to have great bearing on the way that we construct the very basic cryptographic primitives. A positive answer for the first question will be considered a dramatic result in the cryptography and computational complexity communities. To address these goals, it is very useful to understand the relationship between different types and quantities of cryptographic hardness. Such understanding typically involves defining and manipulating different types of computational entropy, and comprehending the power of security reductions. We believe that this research will yield new concepts and techniques, with ramification beyond the realm of foundational cryptography.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2017 Iftach Haitner, Salil Vadhan
The Many Entropies in One-Way Functions
published pages: 159-217, ISSN: , DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-57048-8_4
Tutorials on the Foundations of Cryptography 2019-05-29
2018 Iftach Haitner, Noam Mazor, Rotem Oshman, Omer Reingold, Amir Yehudayoff
On the Communication Complexity of Key-Agreement Protocols
published pages: , ISSN: 1433-8092, DOI:
Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC) 25: 31 (2018) 2019-05-29
2017 Ran Cohen, Iftach Haitner, Eran Omri, Lior Rotem
Characterization of Secure Multiparty Computation Without Broadcast
published pages: , ISSN: 0933-2790, DOI: 10.1007/s00145-017-9264-x
Journal of Cryptology 2019-05-29
2017 Amos Beimel, Iftach Haitner, Nikolaos Makriyannis, Eran Omri
Tighter Bounds on Multi-Party Coin Flipping, via Augmented Weak Martingales and Dierentially Private Sampling
published pages: , ISSN: , DOI:
ECCC - Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity 2019-05-29

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