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Root zone soil moisture Estimates at the daily and agricultural parcel scales for Crop irrigation management and water use impact – a multi-sensor remote sensing approach

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






Project "REC" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
address: CONGRES 49 51
city: Barcelona
postcode: 8031
website: n.a.

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Spain [ES]
 Project website
 Total cost 895˙500 €
 EC max contribution 895˙500 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.3.3. (Stimulating innovation by means of cross-fertilisation of knowledge)
 Code Call H2020-MSCA-RISE-2014
 Funding Scheme MSCA-RISE
 Starting year 2015
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2015-03-01   to  2019-02-28


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 
1    ISARDSAT SL ES (Barcelona) coordinator 387˙000.00


 Project objective

Sustainable water use is a growing concern in Europe. Nowadays, agriculture is an important pressure on water resources especially in Mediterranean countries where irrigation can represent up to 80% of the consumptive uses of water. Increasing water use efficiency in agriculture has been thus identified as one of the key themes relating to water scarcity and drought (EEA Report No 1/2012). It now becomes necessary to improve on-farm irrigation management by adjusting irrigation to crop water requirements along the growing season.

Modern irrigation agencies rely on in situ root zone soil moisture measurements to detect the onset of crop water stress and to trigger irrigation. However, in situ point measurements are generally not available over extended areas and may not be representative at the field scale. If remote sensing provides cost-effective techniques for monitoring broad areas, there is currently no algorithm dedicated to root zone soil moisture monitoring at the parcel scale.

REC proposes a solution to the need of root-zone soil moisture at the crop scale for irrigation management. It is based on an innovative operational algorithm that will allow for the first time to: 1) to map root zone soil moisture on a daily basis at the field scale and 2) to quantitatively evaluate the different components of the water budget at the field scale from readily available remote sensing data.

The methodology relies on the coupling between a surface model representing the water fluxes at the land surface atmosphere interface (infiltration, evaporation, transpiration) and in the soil (drainage), and remote sensing data composed of land surface temperature, and near-surface soil moisture retrieved from microwave radiometers and radars.

These estimates will be integrated in an irrigation management system that will be used to trigger irrigation. In addition, these estimates will allow making an impact assessment of the consumptive use of water and water footprint.


List of deliverables.
\'mass\' media releases Websites, patent fillings, videos etc. 2019-08-06 18:17:16
Project Open Days Websites, patent fillings, videos etc. 2019-08-06 18:17:16
Training Material Other 2019-08-06 18:17:16
Water Use Assessment Documents, reports 2019-08-06 18:17:16
Ecosystem Services Assessment Documents, reports 2019-08-06 18:17:16
webinars and short videos Websites, patent fillings, videos etc. 2019-08-06 18:17:16
Articles and presentations Websites, patent fillings, videos etc. 2019-08-06 18:17:16
International Final WS Websites, patent fillings, videos etc. 2019-08-06 18:17:16
Initial User Workshop Other 2019-08-06 18:17:15
Web Page Websites, patent fillings, videos etc. 2019-08-06 18:17:15
State of Art Documents, reports 2019-08-06 18:17:15

Take a look to the deliverables list in detail:  detailed list of REC deliverables.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2018 Houda Nassah, Salah Er-Raki, Said Khabba, Younes Fakir, Fatima Raibi, Olivier Merlin, Bernard Mougenot
Evaluation and analysis of deep percolation losses of drip irrigated citrus crops under non-saline and saline conditions in a semi-arid area
published pages: 10-24, ISSN: 1537-5110, DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.10.017
Biosystems Engineering 165 2019-08-06
2019 Abdelhakim Amazirh, Olivier Merlin, Salah Er-Raki
Including Sentinel-1 radar data to improve the disaggregation of MODIS land surface temperature data
published pages: 11-26, ISSN: 0924-2716, DOI: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2019.02.004
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 150 2019-08-06
2017 Y. Malbéteau, O. Merlin, S. Gascoin, J.P. Gastellu, C. Mattar, L. Olivera-Guerra, S. Khabba, L. Jarlan
Normalizing land surface temperature data for elevation and illumination effects in mountainous areas: A case study using ASTER data over a steep-sided valley in Morocco
published pages: 25-39, ISSN: 0034-4257, DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2016.11.010
Remote Sensing of Environment 189 2019-08-06
2016 O. Merlin, V. G. Stefan, A. Amazirh, A. Chanzy, E. Ceschia, S. Er-Raki, P. Gentine, T. Tallec, J. Ezzahar, S. Bircher, J. Beringer, S. Khabba
Modeling soil evaporation efficiency in a range of soil and atmospheric conditions using a meta-analysis approach
published pages: 3663-3684, ISSN: 0043-1397, DOI: 10.1002/2015wr018233
Water Resources Research 52/5 2019-08-06
2018 Abdelhakim Amazirh, Olivier Merlin, Salah Er-Raki, Qi Gao, Vincent Rivalland, Yoann Malbeteau, Said Khabba, Maria José Escorihuela
Retrieving surface soil moisture at high spatio-temporal resolution from a synergy between Sentinel-1 radar and Landsat thermal data: A study case over bare soil
published pages: 321-337, ISSN: 0034-4257, DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2018.04.013
Remote Sensing of Environment 211 2019-08-06
2019 Zoubair Rafi, Olivier Merlin, Valérie Le Dantec, Saïd Khabba, Patrick Mordelet, Salah Er-Raki, Abdelhakim Amazirh, Luis Olivera-Guerra, Bouchra Ait Hssaine, Vincent Simonneaux, Jamal Ezzahar, Francesc Ferrer
Partitioning evapotranspiration of a drip-irrigated wheat crop: Inter-comparing eddy covariance-, sap flow-, lysimeter- and FAO-based methods
published pages: 310-326, ISSN: 0168-1923, DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.11.031
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 265 2019-08-06
2017 Omar Ali Eweys, Maria José Escorihuela, Josep M. Villar, Salah Er-Raki, Abdelhakim Amazirh, Luis Olivera, Lionel Jarlan, Saïd Khabba, Olivier Merlin
Disaggregation of SMOS Soil Moisture to 100 m Resolution Using MODIS Optical/Thermal and Sentinel-1 Radar Data: Evaluation over a Bare Soil Site in Morocco
published pages: 1155, ISSN: 2072-4292, DOI: 10.3390/rs9111155
Remote Sensing 9/11 2019-08-06
2017 Qi Gao, Mehrez Zribi, Maria Escorihuela, Nicolas Baghdadi
Synergetic Use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data for Soil Moisture Mapping at 100 m Resolution
published pages: 1966, ISSN: 1424-8220, DOI: 10.3390/s17091966
Sensors 17/9 2019-08-06
2018 Luis Olivera-Guerra, Olivier Merlin, Salah Er-Raki, Saïd Khabba, Maria Jose Escorihuela
Estimating the water budget components of irrigated crops: Combining the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient with surface temperature and vegetation index data
published pages: 120-131, ISSN: 0378-3774, DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.06.014
Agricultural Water Management 208 2019-08-06
2016 Maria Jose Escorihuela, Pere Quintana-Seguí
Comparison of remote sensing and simulated soil moisture datasets in Mediterranean landscapes
published pages: 99-114, ISSN: 0034-4257, DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2016.02.046
Remote Sensing of Environment 180 2019-08-06
2018 Qi Gao, Mehrez Zribi, Maria Escorihuela, Nicolas Baghdadi, Pere Segui
Irrigation Mapping Using Sentinel-1 Time Series at Field Scale
published pages: 1495, ISSN: 2072-4292, DOI: 10.3390/rs10091495
Remote Sensing 10/9 2019-08-06
2018 Mireia Fontanet, Daniel Fernàndez-Garcia, Francesc Ferrer
The value of satellite remote sensing soil moisture data and the DISPATCH algorithm in irrigation fields
published pages: 5889-5900, ISSN: 1607-7938, DOI: 10.5194/hess-22-5889-2018
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 22/11 2019-08-06
2018 Bouchra Hssaine, Jamal Ezzahar, Lionel Jarlan, Olivier Merlin, Said Khabba, Aurore Brut, Salah Er-Raki, Jamal Elfarkh, Bernard Cappelaere, Ghani Chehbouni
Combining a Two Source Energy Balance Model Driven by MODIS and MSG-SEVIRI Products with an Aggregation Approach to Estimate Turbulent Fluxes over Sparse and Heterogeneous Vegetation in Sahel Region (Niger)
published pages: 974, ISSN: 2072-4292, DOI: 10.3390/rs10060974
Remote Sensing 10/6 2019-08-06
2018 Olivier Merlin, Luis Olivera-Guerra, Bouchra Aït Hssaine, Abdelhakim Amazirh, Zoubair Rafi, Jamal Ezzahar, Pierre Gentine, Said Khabba, Simon Gascoin, Salah Er-Raki
A phenomenological model of soil evaporative efficiency using surface soil moisture and temperature data
published pages: 501-515, ISSN: 0168-1923, DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.04.010
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 256-257 2019-08-06
2017 Jian Peng, Alexander Loew, Olivier Merlin, Niko E. C. Verhoest
A review of spatial downscaling of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture
published pages: 341-366, ISSN: 8755-1209, DOI: 10.1002/2016rg000543
Reviews of Geophysics 55/2 2019-08-06
2017 A. Diarra, L. Jarlan, S. Er-Raki, M. Le Page, G. Aouade, A. Tavernier, G. Boulet, J. Ezzahar, O. Merlin, S. Khabba
Performance of the two-source energy budget (TSEB) model for the monitoring of evapotranspiration over irrigated annual crops in North Africa
published pages: 71-88, ISSN: 0378-3774, DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.08.007
Agricultural Water Management 193 2019-08-06
2017 Abdelhakim Amazirh, Salah Er-Raki, Abdelghani Chehbouni, Vincent Rivalland, Alhousseine Diarra, Said Khabba, Jamal Ezzahar, Olivier Merlin
Modified Penman–Monteith equation for monitoring evapotranspiration of wheat crop: Relationship between the surface resistance and remotely sensed stress index
published pages: 68-84, ISSN: 1537-5110, DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.09.015
Biosystems Engineering 164 2019-08-06
2018 Y. Malbéteau, O. Merlin, G. Balsamo, S. Er-Raki, S. Khabba, J. P. Walker, L. Jarlan
Toward a Surface Soil Moisture Product at High Spatiotemporal Resolution: Temporally Interpolated, Spatially Disaggregated SMOS Data
published pages: 183-200, ISSN: 1525-755X, DOI: 10.1175/jhm-d-16-0280.1
Journal of Hydrometeorology 19/1 2019-08-06
2018 Bouchra Ait Hssaine, Olivier Merlin, Zoubair Rafi, Jamal Ezzahar, Lionel Jarlan, Saïd Khabba, Salah Er-Raki
Calibrating an evapotranspiration model using radiometric surface temperature, vegetation cover fraction and near-surface soil moisture data
published pages: 104-115, ISSN: 0168-1923, DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.02.033
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 256-257 2019-08-06
2017 A. Ayyoub, S. Er-Raki, S. Khabba, O. Merlin, J. Ezzahar, J.C. Rodriguez, A. Bahlaoui, A. Chehbouni
A simple and alternative approach based on reference evapotranspiration and leaf area index for estimating tree transpiration in semi-arid regions
published pages: 61-68, ISSN: 0378-3774, DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.005
Agricultural Water Management 188 2019-08-06

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