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The historical dynamics of industrialization in Northwestern Europe and China ca. 1800-2010: A regional interpretation

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






Project "HInDI" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
postcode: 1011 JV

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Netherlands [NL]
 Project website
 Total cost 1˙452˙309 €
 EC max contribution 1˙452˙309 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
 Code Call ERC-2014-STG
 Funding Scheme ERC-STG
 Starting year 2015
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2015-09-01   to  2020-08-31


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 


 Project objective

The Industrial Revolution is one of the most important events in human history: within a century, some countries multiplied their per capita income while others stagnated, exacerbating international inequality. Reducing this enduring inequality through industrial development has been a crucial policy goal; however, as no precise understanding of industrial development exists, no consistent international policy has been formulated.

The understanding of this phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of data, theory, and historical dynamism. Many studies are, due to the lack of data, conducted on the national level, despite the fact that industrialization is ultimately a regional (i.e. intra-national) phenomenon. The basic principle of regional industrialization was investigated until the 1990s, when the focus shifted to other areas. At that time these studies had still been unconnected with economic location theory, as in the 1990s these were still unable to explain the regional spread of industrialization. Yet, more recent location theories have relaxed certain theoretical assumptions, allowing their application to the spread of industrialization as well. However, even these theories often lack historical dynamism, i.e. the capability to predict and explain the considerable changes that industrialization underwent these past 200 years.

Using the regional approach, merging it with recent location theory, and creating a systematic regional dataset, this project will fundamentally alter our insights in the spread and development of industrialization. Analysis will focus on four macro regions and their sub-regions: two in Europe (England and the Low Countries) and two in China (the Yangtze delta and the Yungui area). These macro regions cover the timeline of industrialization (England, then the Low Countries, and much later, the Yangtze and finally the Yungui area) which may have caused different patterns of local industrialization within each of these macro regions.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2019 R.C.M. Philips
Construction of a Census of Companies for the Netherlands in 1896
published pages: 87-108, ISSN: 1572-1701, DOI: 10.18352/tseg.1064
Low Countries Journal of Social and Economic History 16(1) 2019-11-26
2019 Y. Xu, Z. Tang
Constructing a Census of Chinese Regional Industrialization for 1933. The Case of Jiangsu and Guangdong Provinces
published pages: 93-108, ISSN: 1572-1701, DOI: 10.18352/tseg..1085
Low Countries Journal of Social and Economic History 16(2) 2019-11-26
2019 Yongqin Guo, Zipeng Zhang, Bas Leeuwen, Yi Xu
A View of the Occupational Structure in Imperial and Republican China (1640–1952)
published pages: 134-158, ISSN: 0004-8992, DOI: 10.1111/aehr.12174
Australian Economic History Review 59/2 2019-10-30
2017 Robin Philips, Peter Foldvari, Bas van Leeuwen
Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century
published pages: 1-25, ISSN: , DOI:
Munich Personal Repec Archive MPRA Paper No. 83304, posted 20 2019-05-29
2016 Yi Xu
The Estimation and Comparative Study on the Development Level of China \'s ManufacturingIndustry in 1933——Taking Guangdong and Guangxi as Examples
published pages: 1-15, ISSN: , DOI:
Developments of Cliometrics Research In China (中国计量经济史研究动态) 2016 vol. 3 2019-05-29
2016 Yi Xu & Bas van Leeuwen
China’s Position in World Industrialization during 1850-2012: A Value-Added Estimation
published pages: 98-109, ISSN: 1673-8837, DOI: 10.19602/j.chinaeconomist.2016.06.008
China Economist 11 (6) 2019-05-29
2017 Bas van Leeuwen, Jieli van Leeuwen-Li, Peter Foldvari
Human Capital in Republican and New China: Regional and Long-Term Trends
published pages: 1-36, ISSN: 2078-0389, DOI: 10.1080/20780389.2016.1261629
Economic History of Developing Regions 32/1 2019-05-29
2016 Ni Yuping, Xu Yi, Bas van Leeuwen
Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview *
published pages: 56-75, ISSN: 0252-9203, DOI: 10.1080/02529203.2016.1241494
Social Sciences in China 37/4 2019-05-29
2017 Yi Xu, Zhihong Shi, Bas van Leeuwen, Yuping Ni, Zipeng Zhang, Ye Ma
Chinese National Income, ca. 1661-1933
published pages: 368-393, ISSN: 0004-8992, DOI: 10.1111/aehr.12127
Australian Economic History Review 57/3 2019-05-29
2018 Yi Xu, Bas van Leeuwen, Jan Luiten vanZanden
Urbanization in China, ca. 1100–1900
published pages: 322-368, ISSN: 1673-3568, DOI:
Frontiers of Economics in China 13(3) 2019-04-13
2018 Bas van Leeuwen, Aurelian-PetruÅŸ Plopeanu, Peter Foldvari
Publishing ideas: The factors determining the number of book titles
published pages: 443-466, ISSN: 0001-6373, DOI: 10.1556/032.2018.68.3.6
Acta Oeconomica 68/3 2019-04-09

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