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Winter Rain, Summer Rain: Adaptation, Climate Change, Resilience and the Indus Civilisation

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






 TWORAINS project word cloud

Explore the words cloud of the TWORAINS project. It provides you a very rough idea of what is the project "TWORAINS" about.

patterns    earth    water    archaeologists    summer    fundamental    rain    elusive    stress    geography    model    changing    edge    combining    distinctive    interdisciplinary    communities    2100    rainfall    start    adopting    1900    events    collapse    provides    indian    perceived    degree    decline    agent    climate    resilience    consumption    resilient    adaptations    tworains    food    environmental    human    south    bc    cutting    data    made    societies    laboratory    populations    decisions    sustainability    impacted    winter    did    cities    westerly    climatic    sustainable    nw    hypothesise    explore    contexts    instances    landscape    understand    indus    reconstruct    archaeology    connection    ask    monsoon    choices    adapt    societal    settlement    abrupt    weather    inherently    really    elucidate    weakening    first    society    ways    asia    clear    combine    security    confronted    sciences    play    india    ism    coincided    overlapped    2500    civilisation    ideal   

Project "TWORAINS" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
postcode: CB2 1TN

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country United Kingdom [UK]
 Project website https
 Total cost 1˙999˙439 €
 EC max contribution 1˙999˙439 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
 Code Call ERC-2014-CoG
 Funding Scheme ERC-COG
 Starting year 2015
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2015-09-01   to  2021-08-31


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 


 Project objective

Rainfall systems are complex and inherently variable, yet they are of fundamental importance due to their impact on food security. Given that human populations can adapt their behaviour to a wide range of climatic and environmental conditions, it is essential that we understand the degree to which human choices in the past, present and future are resilient and sustainable in the face of variable weather conditions, and when confronted with abrupt events of climate change.

TWORAINS will investigate the resilience and sustainability of South Asia’s first complex society, the Indus Civilisation (c.2500-1900 BC), which developed across a range of distinctive environmental contexts where westerly winter rainfall overlapped with the summer rainfall of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). It is now clear that there was an abrupt weakening of the ISM that directly impacted NW India c.2100 BC, and coincided with the start of the decline of Indus cities, but the degree of connection between the two is elusive.

Archaeologists have a unique role to play in understanding the ways that societies respond to climate change as they can investigate past instances of success or failure, and the Indus Civilisation provides an ideal laboratory in which to explore how societies can respond to variable and changing rain systems. TWORAINS will combine cutting edge approaches from Archaeology, Earth Sciences and Geography to reconstruct climate, model rain patterns, and explore societal adaptations and responses to change by combining data on settlement distribution, food production and consumption, and water stress. The data will then be integrated and assessed using agent-based modelling. By adopting an integrated interdisciplinary approach, it will be possible to ask “Does climate change really cause collapse?”, elucidate how particular communities perceived weather and landscape changes, hypothesise why they made the decisions they did, and explore the consequences of those decisions.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2020 Jean-Philippe Baudouin, Michael Herzog, Cameron A. Petrie
Cross-validating precipitation datasets in the Indus River basin
published pages: 427-450, ISSN: 1607-7938, DOI: 10.5194/hess-24-427-2020
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 24/1 2020-04-01
2019 Green, Orengo, Alam, Garcia-Molsosa, Green, Conesa, Ranjan, Singh, Petrie
Re-Discovering Ancient Landscapes: Archaeological Survey of Mound Features from Historical Maps in Northwest India and Implications for Investigating the Large-Scale Distribution of Cultural Heritage Sites in South Asia
published pages: 2089, ISSN: 2072-4292, DOI: 10.3390/rs11182089
Remote Sensing 11/18 2020-04-01
2019 Cameron A. Petrie, Lloyd Weeks
The Iranian Plateau and the Indus River Basin
published pages: 293-326, ISSN: , DOI:
Climate Changes in the Holocene: Their Impacts and Human Adaptation 2020-04-01
2020 Emma Lightfoot, M. Cemre Ustunkaya, Natalia Przelomska, Tamsin C. O\'Connell, Harriet V. Hunt, Martin K. Jones, Cameron A. Petrie
Carbon and nitrogen isotopic variability in foxtail millet ( Setaria italica ) with watering regime
published pages: , ISSN: 0951-4198, DOI: 10.1002/rcm.8615
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 34/6 2020-04-01
2019 Cameron A. Petrie
Diversity, variability, adaptation and ‘fragility’ in the Indus Civilisation
published pages: 109-133, ISSN: , DOI: 10.17863/cam.40701
The Evolution of Fragility: Setting the Terms 2020-04-01
2020 Cameron A. Petrie, Frank Lynam
Revisiting Settlement Contemporaneity and Exploring Stability and Instability: Case Studies from the Indus Civilization
published pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0093-4690, DOI: 10.1080/00934690.2019.1664848
Journal of Field Archaeology 45/1 2020-04-01
2019 Arnau Garcia, Hector Orengo, Francesc Conesa, Adam Green, Cameron Petrie
Remote Sensing and Historical Morphodynamics of Alluvial Plains. The 1909 Indus Flood and the City of Dera Ghazi Khan (Province of Punjab, Pakistan)
published pages: 21, ISSN: 2076-3263, DOI: 10.3390/geosciences9010021
Geosciences 9/1 2020-04-01
2020 Jones, P.J., Singh, R.N., Petrie, C.A., O’Connell, T.C., and Jones, M.K.
Investigating adaptation to climate change in the archaeological record: a conceptual framework and an isotopic approach in the Indus Civilisation
published pages: 27-41, ISSN: , DOI:
South Asian Archaeology 2014 2020-04-01
2020 Sayantani Neogi, Charles A.I. French, Julie A. Durcan, Ravindra N. Singh, Cameron A. Petrie
Geoarchaeological insights into the location of Indus settlements on the plains of northwest India
published pages: 137-155, ISSN: 0033-5894, DOI: 10.1017/qua.2019.70
Quaternary Research 94 2020-04-01
2020 Alessandro Ceccarelli, Cameron A. Petrie
Cultural evolutionary paradigms and technological transformations from the Neolithic up to the Indus urban period in South Asia
published pages: 3-20, ISSN: , DOI:
Religions, Society, Trade and Kingship: Archaeology and Art in South Asia and along the Silk Road, 3500 BCE - 5th Century CE, South Asian Archaeology and Art 2016 2020-04-01
2019 Danika Parikh, Cameron A. Petrie
‘We are inheritors of a rural civilisation’: rural complexity and the ceramic economy in the Indus Civilisation in northwest India
published pages: 252-272, ISSN: 0043-8243, DOI: 10.1080/00438243.2019.1601463
World Archaeology 51/2 2020-04-01
2019 Cameron Petrie, Hector Orengo, Adam Green, Joanna Walker, Arnau Garcia, Francesc Conesa, J. Knox, Ravindra Singh
Mapping Archaeology While Mapping an Empire: Using Historical Maps to Reconstruct Ancient Settlement Landscapes in Modern India and Pakistan
published pages: 11, ISSN: 2076-3263, DOI: 10.3390/geosciences9010011
Geosciences 9/1 2020-04-01
2019 Jones, Matthew,; Abu-Jaber, Nizar; AlShdaifat, Ahmad; Baird, Douglas; Cook, Benjamin,; Cuthbert, Mark,; Dean, Jonathan,; Djamali, Morteza; Eastwood, Warren; Fleitmann, Dominik; Haywood, Alan; Kwiecien, Ola; Larsen, Joshua; Maher, Lisa,; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Parker, Adrian G.; PETRIE, Cameron A.; Primmer, Nick; Richter, Tobias; Roberts, Neil,; Roe, Joe; Tindall, Julia,; Ãœnal-Ä°mer, Ezgi; Weeks, Llo
20,000 years of societal vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in southwest Asia
published pages: , ISSN: 2049-1948, DOI: 10.17863/CAM.35523
\"Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water, Wiley, 2019, 6 (2), ⟨10.1002/wat2.1330⟩\" 2 2020-02-07
2019 Alena Giesche, Michael Staubwasser, Cameron A. Petrie, David A. Hodell
Indian winter and summer monsoon strength over the 4.2 ka BP event in foraminifer isotope records from the Indus River delta in the Arabian Sea
published pages: 73-90, ISSN: 1814-9332, DOI: 10.5194/cp-15-73-2019
Climate of the Past 15/1 2020-02-07
2018 Yama Dixit, David A. Hodell, Alena Giesche, Sampat K. Tandon, Fernando Gázquez, Hari S. Saini, Luke C. Skinner, Syed A. I. Mujtaba, Vikas Pawar, Ravindra N. Singh, Cameron A. Petrie
Intensified summer monsoon and the urbanization of Indus Civilization in northwest India
published pages: , ISSN: 2045-2322, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22504-5
Scientific Reports 8/1 2020-02-07
2017 Hector Orengo, Cameron Petrie
Large-Scale, Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing of Palaeo-River Networks: A Case Study from Northwest India and its Implications for the Indus Civilisation
published pages: 735, ISSN: 2072-4292, DOI: 10.3390/rs9070735
Remote Sensing 9/7 2020-02-07
2017 Cameron A. Petrie, Ravindra N. Singh, Jennifer Bates, Yama Dixit, Charly A. I. French, David A. Hodell, Penelope J. Jones, Carla Lancelotti, Frank Lynam, Sayantani Neogi, Arun K. Pandey, Danika Parikh, Vikas Pawar, David I. Redhouse, Dheerendra P. Singh
Adaptation to Variable Environments, Resilience to Climate Change: Investigating Land, Water and Settlement in Indus Northwest India
published pages: 1-30, ISSN: 0011-3204, DOI: 10.1086/690112
Current Anthropology 58/1 2020-02-07
2018 Ceccarelli, A., Petrie, C.A.
Ceramic analysis and the Indus Civilisation: a review
published pages: 85-98, ISSN: , DOI:
Walking with the Unicorn. Social Organization and Material Culture in Ancient South Asia 2020-02-07
2017 J. Bates, C.A. Petrie, R.N. Singh
Cereals, calories and change: exploring approaches to quantification in Indus archaeobotany
published pages: , ISSN: 1866-9557, DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0489-2
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 2020-02-07
2017 Julie A. Durcan, David S.G. Thomas, Sanjeev Gupta, Vikas Pawar, Ravindra N. Singh, Cameron A. Petrie
Holocene landscape dynamics in the Ghaggar-Hakra palaeochannel region at the northern edge of the Thar Desert, northwest India
published pages: , ISSN: 1040-6182, DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2017.10.012
Quaternary International 2020-02-07
2018 Diane L. Lister, Huw Jones, Hugo R. Oliveira, Cameron A. Petrie, Xinyi Liu, James Cockram, Catherine J. Kneale, Olga Kovaleva, Martin K. Jones
Barley heads east: Genetic analyses reveal routes of spread through diverse Eurasian landscapes
published pages: e0196652, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196652
PLOS ONE 13/7 2020-02-07
2018 Adam S. Green, Cameron A. Petrie
Landscapes of Urbanization and De-Urbanization: A Large-Scale Approach to Investigating the Indus Civilization’s Settlement Distributions in Northwest India
published pages: 284-299, ISSN: 0093-4690, DOI: 10.1080/00934690.2018.1464332
Journal of Field Archaeology 43/4 2020-02-07
2018 Petrie CA, Green A, Parikh D, Bates J
Looking beneath the veneer: thoughts about environmental and cultural diversity in the Indus Civilisation
published pages: 455-476, ISSN: , DOI:
Walking with the Unicorn. Social Organization and Material Culture in Ancient South Asia 2020-02-07
2017 C. A. Petrie, J. Bates
‘Multi-cropping’, Intercropping and Adaptation to Variable Environments in Indus South Asia
published pages: 81-130, ISSN: 0892-7537, DOI: 10.1007/s10963-017-9101-z
Journal of World Prehistory 30/2 2020-02-07
2016 Petrie, C.A., Bates, J., Higham, T. and Singh, R.N.
Feeding ancient cities in South Asia: dating the adoption of rice, millet and tropical pulses in the Indus Civilisation
published pages: 1489-1504, ISSN: 0003-598X, DOI: 10.15184/aqy.2016.210
Antiquity 90.354 2020-02-07
2018 Hector A. Orengo, Cameron A. Petrie
Multi-scale relief model (MSRM): a new algorithm for the visualization of subtle topographic change of variable size in digital elevation models
published pages: 1361-1369, ISSN: 0197-9337, DOI: 10.1002/esp.4317
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 43/6 2020-02-07
2017 Xinyi Liu, Diane L. Lister, Zhijun Zhao, Cameron A. Petrie, Xiongsheng Zeng, Penelope J. Jones, Richard A. Staff, Anil K. Pokharia, Jennifer Bates, Ravindra N. Singh, Steven A. Weber, Giedre Motuzaite Matuzeviciute, Guanghui Dong, Haiming Li, Hongliang Lü, Hongen Jiang, Jianxin Wang, Jian Ma, Duo Tian, Guiyun Jin, Liping Zhou, Xiaohong Wu, Martin K. Jones
Journey to the east: Diverse routes and variable flowering times for wheat and barley en route to prehistoric China
published pages: e0187405, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187405
PLOS ONE 12/11 2020-02-07
2017 J. Bates, C.A. Petrie, R.N. Singh
Approaching rice domestication in South Asia: New evidence from Indus settlements in northern India
published pages: 193-201, ISSN: 0305-4403, DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.018
Journal of Archaeological Science 78 2020-02-07
2017 Jennifer Bates, Ravindra Nath Singh, Cameron A. Petrie
Exploring Indus crop processing: combining phytolith and macrobotanical analyses to consider the organisation of agriculture in northwest India c. 3200–1500 bc
published pages: 25-41, ISSN: 0939-6314, DOI: 10.1007/s00334-016-0576-9
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 26/1 2020-02-07
2016 Xinyi Liu, Diane L. Lister, Zhijun Zhao, Richard A. Staff, Penelope J. Jones, Liping Zhou, Anil K. Pokharia, Cameron A. Petrie, Anubha Pathak, Hongliang Lu, Giedre Motuzaite Matuzeviciute, Jennifer Bates, Thomas K. Pilgram, Martin K. Jones
The virtues of small grain size: Potential pathways to a distinguishing feature of Asian wheats
published pages: 107-119, ISSN: 1040-6182, DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2016.02.059
Quaternary International 426 2020-02-07

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