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Increasing penetration of renewable power, alternative fuels and grid flexibility by cross-vector electrochemical processes

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






Project "BALANCE" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.

Teknologian tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy 

Organization address
city: Espoo
postcode: 2150

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Finland [FI]
 Project website
 Total cost 2˙856˙096 €
 EC max contribution 2˙500˙596 € (88%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.3.3.5. (New knowledge and technologies)
2. H2020-EU.3.3.2. (Low-cost, low-carbon energy supply)
3. H2020-EU.3.3.3. (Alternative fuels and mobile energy sources)
4. H2020-EU.3.3.4. (A single, smart European electricity grid)
 Code Call H2020-LCE-2016-ERA
 Funding Scheme RIA
 Starting year 2016
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2016-12-01   to  2019-11-30


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 
1    Teknologian tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy FI (Espoo) coordinator 690˙763.00
5    TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT DELFT NL (DELFT) participant 246˙406.00
7    INSTYTUT ENERGETYKI PL (WARSZAWA) participant 100˙000.00


 Project objective

The main goal of the BALANCE proposal is to gather leading research centres in Europe in the domain of Solid Oxide Electrolysis (SOE) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to collaborate and accelerate the development of European Reversible Solid Oxide Cell (ReSOC) technology. ReSOC is an electrochemical device that converts electrical energy into hydrogen (electrolysis mode) or alternatively fuel gas to electrical energy (fuel cell mode). It is characterised by its very high efficiency compared to competing technologies. ReSOC enables to store renewable electricity when it is produced in excess or to convert it into a CO2-free transport fuel. Therefore, it is considered as a key technology to allow the broad penetration of renewable electricity into the European energy system. Fragmented national research efforts are currently impeding quicker development and deployment of next-generation fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Therefore, BALANCE will identify, quantify and analyse national activities dealing with the diverse aspects of ReSOC technology. This analysis will result in an integrated European research agenda for ReSOC technology to gain synergies and to generate breakthroughs in this highly promising but currently low-TRL technology. Close communication with the advisory board will enable alignment of the proposed agenda with the roadmaps and activities of EERA, IEC and IEA on the topic of hydrogen technologies. Technical development will cover the development of the next generation of ReSOC cells, their integration in the optimised stack assembly, and investigation of the constraints from reversible operation at system level and integration with the grid. Cost will be addressed by using low-cost materials and improving manufacturability. The experimental work will be supported by modelling and simulation at all scales and by the techno-economic analysis of different integration of the ReSOC technology in industrial applications.


List of deliverables.
BALANCE Database for public consultation Open Research Data Pilot 2020-04-16 15:12:25
Results from the techno-economic analysis comparison between the possible Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:12:01
Results from the performance analysis of integrated ReSOC in industrial application. Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:11:54
Report on short stack testing Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:11:24
Report on the validation of steel grades and coatings in SRU Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:11:18
Report on the electrochemical performance of G2 cells in reversible Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:11:11
Final Advisory paper Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:11:05
Report on shared use of and access to research facilities Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:10:59
Stakeholder and activity catalogue and BALANCE Database (update) Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:10:53
Final exploitation plan report Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:12:09
Update of the DAP and education/exchanges actions for final report Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:12:17
Results on flexible operating methanation reactors Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:11:46
Results on dynamic modelling of ReSOC including grid stabilisation services Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:11:37
Experimental campaign results at system level Documents, reports 2020-04-16 15:11:31
Initial dissemination action plan (DAP) Documents, reports 2019-03-11 14:25:00
Stakeholder and activity catalogue of cross-vector power storage technology development Documents, reports 2019-03-11 14:24:59
Update of the DAP and education/exchanges actions for mid-term Documents, reports 2019-03-11 14:24:48
Data Management Plan (DMP) Documents, reports 2019-02-27 09:52:32
Report on SRU testing to validate the stack design modification Documents, reports 2019-02-27 09:52:26
Initial Exploitation plan (EP) Documents, reports 2019-02-27 09:52:35
Report on the electrochemical performance of the SotA (G1) cells in reversible operation Documents, reports 2019-02-27 09:52:25
Intermediate exploitation plan report Documents, reports 2019-02-27 09:52:35
Identifications of the potentially attractive process chains Documents, reports 2019-02-27 09:52:44

Take a look to the deliverables list in detail:  detailed list of BALANCE deliverables.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2019 Daniel Bøgh Drasbæk, Marie Lund Traulsen, Bhaskar Reddy Sudireddy, Peter Holtappels
Combining Transition Metals – An Approach towards High-Performing Coking Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes
published pages: 1953-1961, ISSN: 1938-5862, DOI: 10.1149/09101.1953ecst
ECS Transactions 91/1 2020-01-28
2019 Giorgio Rinaldi, Arata Nakajo, Priscilla Caliandro, Lucie Navratilova, Jan Van herle
Effects of Polarization on the Microstructural Changes at the YSZ/Ni-YSZ Interface
published pages: 641-652, ISSN: 1938-5862, DOI: 10.1149/09101.0641ecst
ECS Transactions 91/1 2020-01-28
2019 Daniel B. Drasbæk, Marie L. Traulsen, Bhaskar R. Sudireddy, Peter Holtappels
Understanding the electrocatalytic activity of transition metal nanoparticles for solid oxide cell fuel electrodes
published pages: 135004, ISSN: 0013-4686, DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2019.135004
Electrochimica Acta 327 2020-01-28
2019 Xiufu Sun, Bhaskar Reddy Sudireddy, Xiaofeng Tong, Ming Chen, Karen Brodersen, Anne Hauch
Optimization and Durability of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells
published pages: 2631-2639, ISSN: 1938-5862, DOI: 10.1149/09101.2631ecst
ECS Transactions 91/1 2020-01-28
2019 G. Rinaldi, A. Nakajo, P. Burdet, M. Cantoni, W.K.S. Chiu, J. Van herle
Characterization of local morphology and availability of triple-phase boundaries in solid oxide cell electrodes
published pages: 194-206, ISSN: 1359-6454, DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2019.07.027
Acta Materialia 178 2020-01-14
2019 Guillaume Jeanmonod, Ligang Wang, Stefan Diethelm, François Maréchal, Jan Van herle
Trade-off designs of power-to-methane systems via solid-oxide electrolyzer and the application to biogas upgrading
published pages: 572-581, ISSN: 0306-2619, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.04.055
Applied Energy 247 2020-01-14
2019 Ligang Wang, Ming Chen, Rainer Küngas, Tzu-En Lin, Stefan Diethelm, François Maréchal, Jan Van herle
Power-to-fuels via solid-oxide electrolyzer: Operating window and techno-economics
published pages: 174-187, ISSN: 1364-0321, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2019.04.071
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 110 2020-01-14
2019 Yumeng Zhang, Ligang Wang, Ningling Wang, Liqiang Duan, Yi Zong, Shi You, François Maréchal, Jan Van herle, Yongping Yang
Balancing wind-power fluctuation via onsite storage under uncertainty: Power-to-hydrogen-to-power versus lithium battery
published pages: 109465, ISSN: 1364-0321, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2019.109465
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 116 2020-01-14
2019 Vikrant Venkataraman, Mar Pérez-Fortes, Ligang Wang, Yashar S. Hajimolana, Carlos Boigues-Muñoz, Alessandro Agostini, Stephen J. McPhail, François Maréchal, Jan Van Herle, P.V. Aravind
Reversible solid oxide systems for energy and chemical applications – Review & perspectives
published pages: 100782, ISSN: 2352-152X, DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2019.100782
Journal of Energy Storage 24 2020-01-14
2019 J. Tallgren, O. Himanen, M. Bianco, J. Mikkola, O. Thomann, M. Rautanen, J. Kiviaho, J. Van herle
Method to Measure Area Specific Resistance and Chromium Migration Simultaneously from Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Materials
published pages: 570-577, ISSN: 1615-6846, DOI: 10.1002/fuce.201800169
Fuel Cells 19/5 2019-12-17
2019 Ligang Wang, Megha Rao, Stefan Diethelm, Tzu-En Lin, Hanfei Zhang, Anke Hagen, François Maréchal, Jan Van herle
Power-to-methane via co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2: The effects of pressurized operation and internal methanation
published pages: 1432-1445, ISSN: 0306-2619, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.05.098
Applied Energy 250 2019-08-29
2019 D. B. Drasbæk, M. L. Traulsen, R. A. Walker, P. Holtappels
Testing Novel Nickel and Cobalt Infiltrated STN Anodes for Carbon Tolerance using In Situ Raman Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
published pages: , ISSN: 1615-6846, DOI: 10.1002/fuce.201800193
Fuel Cells 2019-08-29
2019 S. Frangini, L. Della Seta, C. Paoletti
Effect of additive particle size on the CuO-accelerated formation of LaFeO3 perovskite conversion coatings in molten carbonate baths
published pages: 513-520, ISSN: 0257-8972, DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2019.06.029
Surface and Coatings Technology 374 2019-08-29
2018 Ligang Wang, Mar Pérez-Fortes, Hossein Madi, Stefan Diethelm, Jan Van herle, François Maréchal
Optimal design of solid-oxide electrolyzer based power-to-methane systems: A comprehensive comparison between steam electrolysis and co-electrolysis
published pages: 1060-1079, ISSN: 0306-2619, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.11.050
Applied Energy 211 2019-06-12
2019 Chen Bin, Yashar S. Hajimolana, Vikrant Venkataraman, Meng Ni, P.V. Aravind
Integration of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells with methane synthesis (ReSOC-MS) in grid stabilization
published pages: 2077-2084, ISSN: 1876-6102, DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.479
Energy Procedia 158 2019-05-15
2018 Andi Mehmeti, Stephen J. McPhail, Sergio Ulgiati
Life cycle inventory data and metrics for high-temperature fuel cells: A streamlined decision-support tool and case study application
published pages: 1195-1205, ISSN: 0360-5442, DOI: 10.1016/
Energy 159 2019-05-15
2018 Andi Mehmeti, Athanasios Angelis-Dimakis, Carlos Boigues Muñoz, Marco Graziadio, Stephen J. McPhail
Eco-thermodynamics of hydrogen production by high-temperature electrolysis using solid oxide cells
published pages: 723-736, ISSN: 0959-6526, DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.166
Journal of Cleaner Production 199 2019-05-15
2019 Nazan Muzaffar, Nasima Arshad, Daniel Drasbæk, Bhaskar Sudireddy, Peter Holtappels
Fabrication and Electrochemical Performance of Zn-Doped La0.2Sr0.25Ca0.45TiO3 Infiltrated with Nickel-CGO, Iron, and Cobalt as an Alternative Anode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
published pages: 269, ISSN: 2073-4344, DOI: 10.3390/catal9030269
Catalysts 9/3 2019-05-15

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