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The Age of Hostility: Understanding the Nature, Dynamics, Determinants, and Consequences of Citizens' Electoral Hostility in 27 Democracies

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






 ELHO project word cloud

Explore the words cloud of the ELHO project. It provides you a very rough idea of what is the project "ELHO" about.

societies    french    elites    brexit    18    mokken    social    group    country    resent    elho    disagreements    divisions    centre    rare    diaries    night    british    time    cycles    anger    reaching    takes    psychiatrists    answer    question    voters    experiments    survey    ran    delegitimization    27    opposite    aggregate    attitudes    antagonism    campaign    structured    outcomes    embs    negativity    self    elections    levels    ergonomists    south    words    stances    basis    betrayed    bodies    hostility    fellow    drift    visual    51    stages    innovative    perpetuating    election    referendum    worrying    hate    family    lawyers    uk    negative    solidarity    atmosphere    partnership    individuals    citizens    disgust    46    political    physiological    shows    phenomenon    brexiteers    frustration    electoral    coding    mitigation    individual    combine    observatory    scepticism    apart    reinforce    australia    preferences    contempt    pilots    africa    groups    scoping    right    perceived    feelings    found    panel    igos    causes    explore    felt    divided    post   

Project "ELHO" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
address: Houghton Street 1
city: LONDON
postcode: WC2A 2AE

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country United Kingdom [UK]
 Total cost 2˙499˙838 €
 EC max contribution 2˙499˙838 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
 Code Call ERC-2017-ADG
 Funding Scheme ERC-ADG
 Starting year 2019
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2019-04-01   to  2024-03-31


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 


 Project objective

‘I hate Brexiteers, they betrayed my future’. Those words of an 18 year old on Brexit Referendum Night represent a growing and worrying phenomenon: electoral hostility. Electoral disagreements have long been seen as results of social divisions, but recent research shows that they have become a basis of antagonism in their own right in the US. Two comparative pilots I ran also found electoral hostility widespread in recent French and British elections but rare in South Africa and Australia. In the UK Brexit referendum, 51% of citizens felt anger towards opposite voters and 46% disgust.

I define electoral hostility as negative feelings (frustration, anger, contempt, disgust) held towards individuals or groups as a result of their effective or perceived electoral preferences. It may occur in the campaign, post-election, and reinforce into self-perpetuating cycles of hostility as it is structured as a Mokken scale which can become ‘stages’ of hostility. While scepticism of political elites is well-studied, hostility towards fellow voters takes electoral negativity to a new level. Electoral hostility may have far reaching consequences, leading citizens to resent one another due to electoral stances and drift apart in increasingly divided societies, but also to the delegitimization of electoral outcomes and negative attitudes towards solidarity.

ELHO will answer the following research question: What are the causes and consequences of electoral hostility at individual, group, and aggregate levels and how does it develop over time? The project’s innovative methods combine a 27 country multi-level panel survey, visual, physiological and field experiments, election diaries, family focus groups, a scoping survey of Election Management Bodies, and campaign and atmosphere coding. The project will also explore possible mitigation in ambitious partnership with psychiatrists, ergonomists, lawyers, EMBs and IGOs creating new Electoral Hostility Research Centre and Observatory.

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The information about "ELHO" are provided by the European Opendata Portal: CORDIS opendata.

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