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The Age of Hostility: Understanding the Nature, Dynamics, Determinants, and Consequences of Citizens' Electoral Hostility in 27 Democracies

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






 ELHO project word cloud

Explore the words cloud of the ELHO project. It provides you a very rough idea of what is the project "ELHO" about.

stages    psychiatrists    panel    survey    worrying    scepticism    found    night    british    uk    18    social    fellow    citizens    pilots    family    disagreements    contempt    reaching    cycles    preferences    outcomes    right    scoping    election    divisions    voters    perceived    structured    visual    referendum    igos    felt    drift    answer    partnership    aggregate    south    mitigation    physiological    anger    lawyers    words    negative    societies    brexiteers    negativity    disgust    causes    delegitimization    political    divided    atmosphere    hate    stances    brexit    coding    phenomenon    experiments    reinforce    betrayed    innovative    embs    attitudes    electoral    australia    feelings    apart    elites    africa    mokken    elho    rare    post    opposite    groups    individual    individuals    elections    time    centre    ergonomists    levels    french    frustration    question    hostility    solidarity    observatory    country    group    resent    combine    51    takes    basis    campaign    ran    shows    bodies    27    antagonism    self    perpetuating    46    explore    diaries   

Project "ELHO" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
address: Houghton Street 1
city: LONDON
postcode: WC2A 2AE

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country United Kingdom [UK]
 Total cost 2˙499˙838 €
 EC max contribution 2˙499˙838 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
 Code Call ERC-2017-ADG
 Funding Scheme ERC-ADG
 Starting year 2019
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2019-04-01   to  2024-03-31


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 


 Project objective

‘I hate Brexiteers, they betrayed my future’. Those words of an 18 year old on Brexit Referendum Night represent a growing and worrying phenomenon: electoral hostility. Electoral disagreements have long been seen as results of social divisions, but recent research shows that they have become a basis of antagonism in their own right in the US. Two comparative pilots I ran also found electoral hostility widespread in recent French and British elections but rare in South Africa and Australia. In the UK Brexit referendum, 51% of citizens felt anger towards opposite voters and 46% disgust.

I define electoral hostility as negative feelings (frustration, anger, contempt, disgust) held towards individuals or groups as a result of their effective or perceived electoral preferences. It may occur in the campaign, post-election, and reinforce into self-perpetuating cycles of hostility as it is structured as a Mokken scale which can become ‘stages’ of hostility. While scepticism of political elites is well-studied, hostility towards fellow voters takes electoral negativity to a new level. Electoral hostility may have far reaching consequences, leading citizens to resent one another due to electoral stances and drift apart in increasingly divided societies, but also to the delegitimization of electoral outcomes and negative attitudes towards solidarity.

ELHO will answer the following research question: What are the causes and consequences of electoral hostility at individual, group, and aggregate levels and how does it develop over time? The project’s innovative methods combine a 27 country multi-level panel survey, visual, physiological and field experiments, election diaries, family focus groups, a scoping survey of Election Management Bodies, and campaign and atmosphere coding. The project will also explore possible mitigation in ambitious partnership with psychiatrists, ergonomists, lawyers, EMBs and IGOs creating new Electoral Hostility Research Centre and Observatory.

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The information about "ELHO" are provided by the European Opendata Portal: CORDIS opendata.

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