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Post-Newtonian modelling of the dynamics of supermassive black holes in galactic-scale hydrodynamical simulations (KETJU)

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






 KETJU project word cloud

Explore the words cloud of the KETJU project. It provides you a very rough idea of what is the project "KETJU" about.

universe    cdm    galaxies    schwarzschild    remaining    technique       gaseous    spectacular    realistic    softened    detection    chain    full    dynamics    particles    accurately    era    regularisation    astronomy    mergers    clusters    space    emission    ketju    2016    realise    lisa    parsec    background    ideally    unusually    unprecedented    nuclear    black    science    first    paving    binaries    structure    word    solving    smbh    supermassive    10    massive    simulation    time    prediction    centres    masses    separations    cores    direct    versatile    accretion    lambda    gadget    holes    accuracy    astrophysical    local    global    cosmological    sub    finnish    amplitude    found    codes    team    body    goals    gw    multiple    unable    post    suited    algorithmic    agency    gravitational    predictions    breakthrough    regions    radii    theoretical    borne    scales    picture    stellar    wave    galactic    simultaneously    interactions    smbhs    accurate    newtonian    uh    dynamical    friction    extragalactic    observatories    surrounding    gas    feedback    code    single    gws    resolve    frequency    modelled    grow   

Project "KETJU" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
postcode: 14

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Finland [FI]
 Total cost 1˙953˙569 €
 EC max contribution 1˙953˙569 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
 Code Call ERC-2018-COG
 Funding Scheme ERC-COG
 Starting year 2019
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2019-07-01   to  2024-06-30


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 


 Project objective

Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses in the range ~10^6-10^10 M⊙ are found at the centres of all massive galaxies in the Local Universe. In the ΛCDM picture of structure formation galaxies grow bottom-up through mergers and gas accretion, leading to multiple SMBHs in the same stellar system. Current simulation codes are unable to resolve in a single simulation the full SMBH merging process, which involves dynamical friction, three-body interactions and finally gravitational wave (GW) emission. KETJU will provide a significant breakthrough in SMBH research by following for the first time accurately global galactic-scale dynamical and gaseous astrophysical processes, while simultaneously solving the dynamics of SMBHs, SMBH binaries and surrounding stellar systems at sub-parsec scales. Our code KETJU (the word for 'chain' in Finnish) is built on the GADGET-3 code and it includes regions around every SMBH in which the dynamics of SMBHs and stellar particles is modelled using a non-softened Post-Newtonian algorithmic chain regularisation technique. The remaining simulation particles far from the SMBHs are evolved using softened GADGET-3. Using KETJU we can study at unprecedented accuracy the dynamics of SMBHs to separations of ~10 Schwarzschild radii, the formation of cores in massive galaxies, the formation of nuclear stellar clusters and finally provide a realistic prediction for the amplitude and frequency distribution of the cosmological gravitational wave background. The UH theoretical extragalactic team is ideally suited for this project, as it has an unusually versatile background in modelling the dynamics, feedback and merging of SMBHs. KETJU is also particularly timely, as the spectacular direct detection of GWs in 2016 is paving the way for a new era in gravitational wave astronomy. Future space-borne GW observatories, such as the European Space Agency's LISA, require accurate global GW predictions in order to fully realise their science goals.

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The information about "KETJU" are provided by the European Opendata Portal: CORDIS opendata.

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