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Nanowire based Tandem Solar Cells

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






Project "Nano-Tandem" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
address: Paradisgatan 5c
city: LUND
postcode: 22100
website: n.a.

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Sweden [SE]
 Project website
 Total cost 4˙332˙341 €
 EC max contribution 3˙561˙841 € (82%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.3.3.5. (New knowledge and technologies)
 Code Call H2020-LCE-2014-1
 Funding Scheme RIA
 Starting year 2015
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2015-05-01   to  2019-04-30


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 
1    LUNDS UNIVERSITET SE (LUND) coordinator 1˙197˙549.00
3    SOL VOLTAICS AB SE (LUND) participant 510˙000.00
4    UNIVERSITE PARIS-SUD FR (ORSAY CEDEX) participant 492˙340.00
5    UNIVERSITEIT LEIDEN NL (LEIDEN) participant 281˙250.00
6    IBM RESEARCH GMBH CH (RUESCHLIKON) participant 0.00


 Project objective

Silicon based photovoltaic cells are the dominant technology for terrestrial solar energy conversion. After many decades of research and development, efficiencies are today flat with the best devices measuring 25 % in the laboratory. Significantly higher conversion efficiencies up to 38.8 % are so far only reached with multi-junction cells based on III-V semiconductors. However, these materials are too expensive for the use in flat-plat modules. Nanowires allow to significantly reduce material needs without compromising absorption or performance. The consortium has already shown InP single-junction nanowire solar cells on InP substrate, reaching world-record efficiencies of 13.8 % and using only 12 % of the volume of a conventional bulk solar cell. Combining III-V nanowires with today’s silicon photovoltaic technology offers the potential to reach at the same time very high performance devices, efficient use of materials and low cost. In this project we are aiming to demonstrate time an experimental proof of a tandem solar cell composed of a top pn-junction formed in III V nanowires and series connected to a bottom pn-junction formed in silicon.Such solar cell devices are either fabricated by direct growth of the nanowires on Si or by transferring a film of nanowires embedded in a polymer onto a Si bottom cell. Besides developing the best process to demonstrate such tandem solar cells with > 25 % efficiency, we are also addressing the important aspect of scaling up the technology to large areas. To reach this objective, we are developing technologies for large area III V nanowire arrays (> 10 cm²) based on nano-imprint technology and epitaxial growth or on a new vapour phase growth method of nanowire aerotaxy. The wide-spread application of nano-materials and III-V compounds in photovoltaics further requires an in depth analysis of ecological and health related risks. In this project we are addressing this important issue already at an early stage of the development


List of deliverables.
Final plan for the exploitation and dissemination of foreground Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:13
Report on nanowire tandem junction growth for solar energy harvesting Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:13
Exploitation plan – preliminary version Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:13
Final summary report on solar cell performance Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:13
Publishable summary on the life cycle costs, including estimated production costs Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:13
Publishable summary on the final life cycle assessment Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:13
Evaluation of the impact of Nano-Tandem scientific achievements Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:13
Report on the electrical design of tandem cell Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:12
Report on growth of doped ternary NW materials for pn-junctions. Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:12
Report on the electrical properties of Esaki diodes between axial NW segments Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:12
Organization of a workshop to support exchange of scientific and technological knowledge Other 2020-01-28 11:53:12
First report on STC efficiency of nanowire solar cells Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:12
Report on realization of integrated light trapping structures into bottom cell Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:12
Report on optimized particle patterning with redesigned master structures or processing Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:12
Publishable summary on the preliminary life cycle assessment Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:12
Report on feasibility of different emitter structures for direct growth of III–V nanowires Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Publishable summary on the compositional homogeneity and optical properties of ternary III–V nanowires Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Project website established Websites, patent fillings, videos etc. 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Dissemination Strategy and Plan Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Report on adaption of EQE and IV measurement equipment for nanowire solar cells Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Report on fabrication of nanotube templates for template-assisted epitaxy on Si Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Publishable summary on the electrical properties of the NW/Si interface achieved with the three planned approaches Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Report on feasibility of different emitter structures for III-V nanowire transfer Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Report on the generation and properties of aerosol particles Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Publishable summary on template-assisted epitaxy of InGaP and GaAsP nanowires on Si. Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Report on suitable geometry and material of nanowire array subcell Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Publishable summary on the NW crystalline and optical structure Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Report on the status of Au-assisted nanowire growth on InP and GaAs substrates and growth of nanowires by use of Aerotaxy Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11
Report on the status of the different NIL based techniques Documents, reports 2020-01-28 11:53:11

Take a look to the deliverables list in detail:  detailed list of Nano-Tandem deliverables.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2019 Enrique Barrigón, Magnus Heurlin, Zhaoxia Bi, Bo Monemar, Lars Samuelson
Synthesis and Applications of III–V Nanowires
published pages: 9170-9220, ISSN: 0009-2665, DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.9b00075
Chemical Reviews 119/15 2020-01-28
2018 Vilgailė Dagytė, Magnus Heurlin, Xulu Zeng, Magnus T Borgström
Growth kinetics of Ga x In (1− x ) P nanowires using triethylgallium as Ga precursor
published pages: 394001, ISSN: 0957-4484, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aad1d2
Nanotechnology 29/39 2020-01-28
2019 Valerio Piazza, Andrey V Babichev, Lorenzo Mancini, Martina Morassi, Patrick Quach, Fabien Bayle, Ludovic Largeau, François H Julien, Pierre Rale, Stéphane Collin, Jean-Christophe Harmand, Noelle Gogneau, Maria Tchernycheva
Investigation of GaN nanowires containing AlN/GaN multiple quantum discs by EBIC and CL techniques
published pages: 214006, ISSN: 0957-4484, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/ab055e
Nanotechnology 30/21 2020-01-28
2018 Axel R. Persson, Wondwosen Metaferia, Sudhakar Sivakumar, Lars Samuelson, Martin H. Magnusson, Reine Wallenberg
Electron Tomography Reveals the Droplet Covered Surface Structure of Nanowires Grown by Aerotaxy
published pages: 1801285, ISSN: 1613-6810, DOI: 10.1002/smll.201801285
Small 14/33 2020-01-28
2018 Nicolas Bologna, Stephan Wirths, Luca Francaviglia, Marco Campanini, Heinz Schmid, Vasileios Theofylaktopoulos, Kirsten E. Moselund, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral, Rolf Erni, Heike Riel, Marta D. Rossell
Dopant-Induced Modifications of Ga x In (1– x ) P Nanowire-Based p–n Junctions Monolithically Integrated on Si(111)
published pages: 32588-32596, ISSN: 1944-8244, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b10770
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10/38 2020-01-28
2018 Wondwosen Metaferia, Sudhakar Sivakumar, Axel R Persson, Irene Geijselaers, L Reine Wallenberg, Knut Deppert, Lars Samuelson, Martin H Magnusson
n -type doping and morphology of GaAs nanowires in Aerotaxy
published pages: 285601, ISSN: 0957-4484, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aabec0
Nanotechnology 29/28 2020-01-28
2019 Cristina Cordoba, Xulu Zeng, Daniel Wolf, Axel Lubk, Enrique Barrigón, Magnus T. Borgström, Karen L. Kavanagh
Three-Dimensional Imaging of Beam-Induced Biasing of InP/GaInP Tunnel Diodes
published pages: 3490-3497, ISSN: 1530-6984, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b00249
Nano Letters 19/6 2020-01-28
2019 Nicklas Anttu, Pyry Kivisaari, Yang Chen
Tailored emission to boost open-circuit voltage in solar cells
published pages: 55009, ISSN: 2399-6528, DOI: 10.1088/2399-6528/ab1cc4
Journal of Physics Communications 3/5 2020-01-28
2018 Valerio Piazza, Marco Vettori, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Pierre Lavenus, Fabien Bayle, Nicolas Chauvin, François H. Julien, Philippe Regreny, Gilles Patriarche, Alain Fave, Michel Gendry, Maria Tchernycheva
Nanoscale investigation of a radial p–n junction in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown on Si (111)
published pages: 20207-20217, ISSN: 2040-3364, DOI: 10.1039/C8NR03827A
Nanoscale 10/43 2020-01-28
2019 Vilgailė Dagytė, Nicklas Anttu
Modal analysis of resonant and non-resonant optical response in semiconductor nanowire arrays
published pages: 25710, ISSN: 0957-4484, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aaea26
Nanotechnology 30/2 2020-01-28
2017 Nicklas Anttu, Vilgailė Dagytė, Xulu Zeng, Gaute Otnes, Magnus Borgström
Absorption and transmission of light in III–V nanowire arrays for tandem solar cell applications
published pages: 205203, ISSN: 0957-4484, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa6aee
Nanotechnology 28/20 2020-01-28
2018 Xulu Zeng, Gaute Otnes, Magnus Heurlin, Renato T. Mourão, Magnus T. Borgström
InP/GaInP nanowire tunnel diodes
published pages: 2523-2531, ISSN: 1998-0124, DOI: 10.1007/s12274-017-1877-8
Nano Research 11/5 2020-01-28
2016 Nicklas Anttu
Connection between modeled blackbody radiation and dipole emission in large-area nanostructures
published pages: 1494, ISSN: 0146-9592, DOI: 10.1364/OL.41.001494
Optics Letters 41/7 2020-01-28
2017 Gaute Otnes, Magnus Heurlin, Xulu Zeng, Magnus T. Borgström
In x Ga 1– x P Nanowire Growth Dynamics Strongly Affected by Doping Using Diethylzinc
published pages: 702-707, ISSN: 1530-6984, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03795
Nano Letters 17/2 2020-01-28
2017 Yang Chen, Oliver Höhn, Nico Tucher, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Optical analysis of a III-V-nanowire-array-on-Si dual junction solar cell
published pages: A665, ISSN: 1094-4087, DOI: 10.1364/oe.25.00a665
Optics Express 25/16 2020-01-28
2018 Romain Cariou, Jan Benick, Frank Feldmann, Oliver Höhn, Hubert Hauser, Paul Beutel, Nasser Razek, Markus Wimplinger, Benedikt Bläsi, David Lackner, Martin Hermle, Gerald Siefer, Stefan W. Glunz, Andreas W. Bett, Frank Dimroth
III–V-on-silicon solar cells reaching 33% photoconversion efficiency in two-terminal configuration
published pages: 326-333, ISSN: 2058-7546, DOI: 10.1038/s41560-018-0125-0
Nature Energy 3/4 2020-01-28
2018 Xulu Zeng, Renato T Mourão, Gaute Otnes, Olof Hultin, Vilgailė Dagytė, Magnus Heurlin, Magnus T Borgström
Electrical and optical evaluation of n -type doping in In x Ga (1− x ) P nanowires
published pages: 255701, ISSN: 0957-4484, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aabaa5
Nanotechnology 29/25 2020-01-28
2018 Magnus T. Borgstrom, Martin H. Magnusson, Frank Dimroth, Gerald Siefer, Oliver Hohn, Heike Riel, Heinz Schmid, Stephan Wirths, Mikael Bjork, Ingvar Aberg, Willie Peijnenburg, Martina Vijver, Maria Tchernycheva, Valerio Piazza, Lars Samuelson
Towards Nanowire Tandem Junction Solar Cells on Silicon
published pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2156-3381, DOI: 10.1109/jphotov.2018.2816264
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics Volume: 8, Issue: 3 2020-01-28
2016 Omid Madani Ghahfarokhi, Nicklas Anttu, Lars Samuelson, Ingvar Aberg
Performance of GaAs Nanowire Array Solar Cells for Varying Incidence Angles
published pages: 1502-1508, ISSN: 2156-3381, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2016.2604564
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 6/6 2020-01-28
2017 Vishal Jain, Magnus Heurlin, Enrique Barrigon, Lorenzo Bosco, Ali Nowzari, Shishir Shroff, Virginia Boix, Mohammad Karimi, Reza J. Jam, Alexander Berg, Lars Samuelson, Magnus T. Borgström, Federico Capasso, Håkan Pettersson
InP/InAsP Nanowire-Based Spatially Separate Absorption and Multiplication Avalanche Photodetectors
published pages: 2693-2698, ISSN: 2330-4022, DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00389
ACS Photonics 4/11 2020-01-28
2017 Mohammad Karimi, Magnus Heurlin, Steven Limpert, Vishal Jain, Xulu Zeng, Irene Geijselaers, Ali Nowzari, Ying Fu, Lars Samuelson, Heiner Linke, Magnus T. Borgström, Håkan Pettersson
Intersubband Quantum Disc-in-Nanowire Photodetectors with Normal-Incidence Response in the Long-Wavelength Infrared
published pages: 365-372, ISSN: 1530-6984, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04217
Nano Letters 18/1 2020-01-28
2018 Yang Chen, Pyry Kivisaari, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Optimized efficiency in InP nanowire solar cells with accurate 1D analysis
published pages: 45401, ISSN: 0957-4484, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa9e73
Nanotechnology 29/4 2020-01-28
2018 Georgios Pallas, Willie Peijnenburg, Jeroen Guinée, Reinout Heijungs, Martina Vijver
Green and Clean: Reviewing the Justification of Claims for Nanomaterials from a Sustainability Point of View
published pages: 689, ISSN: 2071-1050, DOI: 10.3390/su10030689
Sustainability 10/3 2020-01-28
2016 Yang Chen, Pyry Kivisaari, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Optimization of the short-circuit current in an InP nanowire array solar cell through opto-electronic modeling
published pages: 435404, ISSN: 0957-4484, DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/27/43/435404
Nanotechnology 27/43 2020-01-28
2017 Gaute Otnes, Magnus T. Borgström
Towards high efficiency nanowire solar cells
published pages: 31-45, ISSN: 1748-0132, DOI: 10.1016/j.nantod.2016.10.007
Nano Today 12 2020-01-28
2017 Mohammad Karimi, Vishal Jain, Magnus Heurlin, Ali Nowzari, Laiq Hussain, David Lindgren, Jan Eric Stehr, Irina A. Buyanova, Anders Gustafsson, Lars Samuelson, Magnus T. Borgström, Håkan Pettersson
Room-temperature InP/InAsP Quantum Discs-in-Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors
published pages: 3356-3362, ISSN: 1530-6984, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b05114
Nano Letters 17/6 2020-01-28
2016 Tuomas Haggren, Gaute Otnes, Renato Mourão, Vilgaile Dagyte, Olof Hultin, Fredrik Lindelöw, Magnus Borgström, Lars Samuelson
InP nanowire p-type doping via Zinc indiffusion
published pages: 18-26, ISSN: 0022-0248, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2016.06.020
Journal of Crystal Growth 451 2020-01-28
2018 Gaute Otnes, Enrique Barrigón, Christian Sundvall, K. Erik Svensson, Magnus Heurlin, Gerald Siefer, Lars Samuelson, Ingvar Åberg, Magnus T. Borgström
Understanding InP Nanowire Array Solar Cell Performance by Nanoprobe-Enabled Single Nanowire Measurements
published pages: 3038-3046, ISSN: 1530-6984, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b00494
Nano Letters 18/5 2020-01-28
2018 Stephan Wirths, Benedikt F. Mayer, Heinz Schmid, Marilyne Sousa, Johannes Gooth, Heike Riel, Kirsten E. Moselund
Room-Temperature Lasing from Monolithically Integrated GaAs Microdisks on Silicon
published pages: 2169-2175, ISSN: 1936-0851, DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b07911
ACS Nano 12/3 2020-01-28
2017 Olof Hultin, Gaute Otnes, Lars Samuelson, Kristian Storm
Simplifying Nanowire Hall Effect Characterization by Using a Three-Probe Device Design
published pages: 1121-1126, ISSN: 1530-6984, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04723
Nano Letters 17/2 2020-01-28
2016 Yang Chen, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Design for strong absorption in a nanowire array tandem solar cell
published pages: 32349, ISSN: 2045-2322, DOI: 10.1038/srep32349
Scientific Reports 6 2020-01-28
2016 Wondwosen Metaferia, Axel R. Persson, Kilian Mergenthaler, Fangfang Yang, Wei Zhang, Arkady Yartsev, Reine Wallenberg, Mats-Erik Pistol, Knut Deppert, Lars Samuelson, Martin H. Magnusson
GaAsP Nanowires Grown by Aerotaxy
published pages: 5701-5707, ISSN: 1530-6984, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02367
Nano Letters 16/9 2020-01-28
2017 E. Barrigón, O. Hultin, D. Lindgren, F. Yadegari, M. H. Magnusson, L. Samuelson, L. I. M. Johansson, M. T. Björk
GaAs Nanowire pn-Junctions Produced by Low-Cost and High-Throughput Aerotaxy
published pages: 1088-1092, ISSN: 1530-6984, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04609
Nano Letters 18/2 2020-01-28
2017 Moritz Knoedler, Nicolas Bologna, Heinz Schmid, Mattias Borg, Kirsten E. Moselund, Stephan Wirths, Marta D. Rossell, Heike Riel
Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy
published pages: 6297-6302, ISSN: 1528-7483, DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.7b00983
Crystal Growth & Design 17/12 2020-01-28
2016 Gaute Otnes, Magnus Heurlin, Mariusz Graczyk, Jesper Wallentin, Daniel Jacobsson, Alexander Berg, Ivan Maximov, Magnus T. Borgström
Strategies to obtain pattern fidelity in nanowire growth from large-area surfaces patterned using nanoimprint lithography
published pages: 2852-2861, ISSN: 1998-0124, DOI: 10.1007/s12274-016-1165-z
Nano Research 9/10 2020-01-28

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