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Towards solving myopia: from genes to pathways using an integrated approach

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






Project "MYOP-PATH" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
postcode: 3015 GD

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country Netherlands [NL]
 Project website
 Total cost 2˙000˙000 €
 EC max contribution 2˙000˙000 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
 Code Call ERC-2014-CoG
 Funding Scheme ERC-COG
 Starting year 2015
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2015-09-01   to  2020-08-31


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 


 Project objective

Background: Myopia (near-sightedness) is a growing public health issue due to its rapidly rising prevalence. In particular high myopia carries a significant risk of blindness for which there are no treatment options. The disease etiology of this trait is complex and largely unknown. We recently identified a large number of disease loci and genes, which provide significant clues for pathogenic pathways. However, they explain only a limited proportion of myopia’s heritability, and the direct functional effects of risk variants, their interaction with environmental factors, and their potential for intervention are unknown. Aim: To identify disease mechanisms that underlie myopia and create starting points for therapy. Approach: 1. Decipher the genetic background of myopia, identify gene effects and influence of environment in humans. In very large consortia (~250,000 study participants) with ample data on epidemiology, myopia phenotype, and genomic markers, we will exploit the recent technological advances to analyze a large number of genetic variants including those altering protein function. We will annotate significant hits to major pathways, study gene effects on phenotype, identify retinal cell structures which drive myopiagenesis, investigate gene-environment interaction, and develop a prediction model for progression to high myopia. 2. Identify gene effects, influence of environment, and targets for intervention in animals. In mice and zebrafish which have been manipulated for high myopia risk genes, we will study ocular biometry, retinal anatomy, visual behavior, and molecular and biochemical effects of genes as a function of environment. Interventions tailored to altering gene effects will be explored. Impact: Integrating the results obtained from these genetic, epidemiologic, functional and molecular studies will advance our understanding of the underlying biology of myopia and help create novel therapeutic targets to reduce the burden of high myopia.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2019 Iglesias, A. I.; Ong, J. S.; Khawaja, A. P.; Gharahkhani, P.; Tedja, M. S.; Verhoeven, V. J. M.; Bonnemaijer, P. W. M.; Wolfs, R. C. W.; Young, T. L.; Jansonius, N. M.; Craig, J. E.; Stambolian, D.; van Duijn, C. M.; MacGregor, S.; Klaver, C. C. W.; International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium and Co
Determining Possible Shared Genetic Architecture Between Myopia and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
published pages: , ISSN: 0146-0404, DOI:
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science , 60 (8) pp. 3142-3149. (2019) 1 2020-04-15
2019 Tedja, M. S.; Haarman, A. E. G.; Meester-Smoor, M. A.; Kaprio, J.; Mackey, D. A.; Guggenheim, J. A.; Hammond, C. J.; Verhoeven, V. J. M.; Klaver, C. C. W.; Bailey-Wilson, J. E.; Baird, P. N.; Veluchamy, A. B.; Biino, G.; Burdon, K. P.; Campbell, H.; Chen, L. J.; Cheng, C-Y; Chew, E. Y.; Craig, J. E.; Cumberland, P. M.; Deangelis, M. M.; Delcourt, C.; Ding, X.; van Duijn, C. M.; Evans, D. M.; Fan,
IMI - Myopia Genetics Report
published pages: , ISSN: 0146-0404, DOI:
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science , 60 (3) M89-M105. (2019) 2 2020-04-15
2018 Tedja, M. S.; Wojciechowski, R.; Hysi, P. G.; Eriksson, N.; Furlotte, N. A.; Verhoeven, V. J. M.; Iglesias, A. I.; Meester-Smoor, M. A.; Tompson, S. W.; Fan, Q.; Khawaja, A. P.; Cheng, C-Y; Hoehn, R.; Yamashiro, K.; Wenocur, A.; Grazal, C.; Haller, T.; Metspalu, A.; Wedenoja, J.; Jonas, J. B.; Wang, Y. X.; Xie, J.; Mitchell, P.; Foster, P. J.; Klein, B. E. K.; Klein, R.; Paterson, A. D.; Hosseini,
Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error
published pages: , ISSN: 1061-4036, DOI:
Nature Genetics , 50 pp. 834-848. (2018) 3 2020-04-15
2016 Tideman JW, Polling JR, van der Schans A, Verhoeven VJ, Klaver CC.
Myopia, a growing health problem
published pages: D803, ISSN: 0028-2162, DOI:
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 160 2019-06-06
2018 J. Willem L. Tideman, Jan Roelof Polling, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe, Johannes R. Vingerling, Caroline C.W. Klaver
Environmental Risk Factors Can Reduce Axial Length Elongation and Myopia Incidence in 6- to 9-Year-Old Children
published pages: , ISSN: 0161-6420, DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.06.029
Ophthalmology 2019-06-06
2018 J. Willem L. Tideman, K. Marstal, J.R. Polling, V.W.V. Jaddoe, M.W. Vernooij, A. van der Lugt, W.J. Niessen, D.H. Poot, C.C.W. Klaver
The determinants of volume, height and width of the eye and the association with refractive error in 10 year old European children
published pages: 301-309, ISSN: 1755-3768, DOI:
Acta Ophthalmol May;96(3) 2019-06-06
2016 Tideman JW, Snabel MC, Tedja MS, van Rijn GA, Wong KT, Kuijpers RW, Vingerling JR, Hofman A, Buitendijk GH, Keunen JE, Boon CJ, Geerards AJ, Luyten GP, Verhoeven VJ, Klaver CC.
Association of Axial Length With Risk of Uncorrectable Visual Impairment for Europeans With Myopia.
published pages: 1355-1363, ISSN: 2168-6165, DOI:
JAMA Ophthalmology 134 2019-06-06
2016 Fan Q, Guo X, Tideman JW, Williams KM, Yazar S, Hosseini SM, Howe LD, Pourcain BS, Evans DM, Timpson NJ, McMahon G, Hysi PG, Krapohl E, Wang YX, Jonas JB, Baird PN, Wang JJ, Cheng CY, Teo YY, Wong TY, Ding X, Wojciechowski R, Young TL, Pärssinen O, Oexle K, Pfeiffer N, Bailey-Wilson JE, Paterson AD, Klaver CC, Plomin R, Hammond CJ, Mackey DA, He M, Saw SM, Williams C, Guggenheim JA
Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium.
published pages: 25853, ISSN: 2045-2322, DOI:
Sci Rep 13 2019-06-06
2016 Polling JR, Verhoeven VJ, Tideman JW, Klaver CC
Duke-Elder\'s Views on Prognosis, Prophylaxis, and Treatment of Myopia: Way Ahead of His Time.
published pages: 40-43, ISSN: 0927-3972, DOI:
Strabismus 24 2019-06-06
2016 Fan Q, Verhoeven VJ, Wojciechowski R, Barathi VA, Hysi PG, Guggenheim JA, Höhn R, Vitart V, Khawaja AP, Yamashiro K, Hosseini SM, Lehtimäki T, Lu Y, Haller T, Xie J, Delcourt C, Pirastu M, Wedenoja J, Gharahkhani P, Venturini C, Miyake M, Hewitt AW, Guo X, Mazur J, Huffman JE, Williams KM, Polasek O, Campbell H, Rudan I, Vatavuk Z, Wilson JF, Joshi PK, McMahon G, St Pourcain B, Evans DM, Simpson CL, Schwantes-An TH, Igo RP, Mirshahi A, Cougnard-Gregoire A, Bellenguez C, Blettner M, Raitakari O, Kähönen M, Seppala I, Zeller T, Meitinger T; Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia., Ried JS, Gieger C, Portas L, van Leeuwen EM, Amin N, Uitterlinden AG, Rivadeneira F, Hofman A, Vingerling JR, Wang YX, Wang X, Tai-Hui Boh E, Ikram MK, Sabanayagam C, Gupta P, Tan V, Zhou L, Ho CE, Lim W, Beuerman RW, Siantar R, Tai ES, Vithana E, Mihailov E, Khor CC, Hayward C, Luben RN, Foster PJ, Klein BE, Klein R, Wong HS, Mitchell P, Metspalu A, Aung T, Young TL, He M, Pärssinen O, van Duijn CM, Jin Wang J, Williams C, Jonas JB, Teo YY, Mackey DA, Oexle K, Yoshimura N, Paterson AD, Pfeiffer N, Wong TY, Baird PN, Stambolian D, Wilson JE, Cheng CY, Hammond CJ, Klaver CC, Saw SM, Rahi JS, Korobelnik JF, Kemp JP, Timpson NJ, Smith GD, Craig JE, Burdon KP, Fogarty RD, Iyengar SK, Chew E, Janmahasatian S, Martin NG, MacGregor S, Xu L, Schache M, Nangia V, Panda-Jonas S, Wright AF, Fondran JR, Lass JH, Feng S, Zhao JH, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Rantanen T, Kaprio J, Pang CP, Chen LJ, Tam PO, Jhanji V, Young AL, Döring A, Raffel LJ, Cotch MF, Li X, Yip SP, Yap MK, Biino G, Vaccargiu S, Fossarello M, Fleck B, Yazar S, Tideman JW, Tedja M, Deangelis MM, Morrison M, Farrer L, Zhou X, Chen W, Mizuki N, Meguro A, Mäkelä KM.
Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error.
published pages: 11008, ISSN: 2041-1723, DOI:
Nat Commun 29 2019-06-06
2017 Michelle Hendriks, Virginie J.M. Verhoeven, Gabriëlle H.S. Buitendijk, Jan Roelof Polling, Magda A. Meester-Smoor, Albert Hofman, Maarten Kamermans, L. Ingeborgh van den Born, Caroline C.W. Klaver, Ramon A. van Huet, B. Jeroen Klevering, Nathalie M. Bax, Stanley Lambertus, Caroline C.W. Klaver, Carel B. Hoyng, Clasien J. Oomen, Wendy A. van Zelst-Stams, Frans P. Cremers, Astrid S. Plomp, Mary J. van Schooneveld, Mies M. van Genderen, José Schuil, F. Nienke Boonstra, Reinier O. Schlingemann, Arthur A. Bergen, Laurence Pierrache, Magda Meester-Smoor, L. Ingeborgh van den Born, Camiel J. Boon, Jan W.R. Pott, Redmer van Leeuwen, Hester Y Kroes, Yvonne de Jong-Hesse
Development of Refractive Errors—What Can We Learn From Inherited Retinal Dystrophies?
published pages: 81-89, ISSN: 0002-9394, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2017.07.008
American Journal of Ophthalmology 182 2019-06-06
2018 Tideman, JWL, Polling, JR, Hofman, A, Jaddoe, VWV , Mackenbach, JP, Klaver, CCW
Environmental factors explain socioeconomic prevalence differences in myopia in 6-year-old children
published pages: 243-247, ISSN: 0007-1161, DOI:
British journal of ophthalmology 102 2019-06-06
2018 Jan Willem Lodewijk Tideman, Jan Roelof Polling, Johannes R. Vingerling, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Cathy Williams, Jeremy A. Guggenheim, Caroline C. W. Klaver
Axial length growth and the risk of developing myopia in European children
published pages: 301-309, ISSN: 1755-375X, DOI: 10.1111/aos.13603
Acta Ophthalmologica 96/3 2019-04-18
2018 Milly S. Tedja, Robert Wojciechowski, Pirro G. Hysi, Nicholas Eriksson, Nicholas A. Furlotte, Virginie J. M. Verhoeven, Adriana I. Iglesias, Magda A. Meester-Smoor, Stuart W. Tompson, Qiao Fan, Anthony P. Khawaja, Ching-Yu Cheng, René Höhn, Kenji Yamashiro, Adam Wenocur, Clare Grazal, Toomas Haller, Andres Metspalu, Juho Wedenoja, Jost B. Jonas, Ya Xing Wang, Jing Xie, Paul Mitchell, Paul J. Foster, Barbara E. K. Klein, Ronald Klein, Andrew D. Paterson, S. Mohsen Hosseini, Rupal L. Shah, Cathy Williams, Yik Ying Teo, Yih Chung Tham, Preeti Gupta, Wanting Zhao, Yuan Shi, Woei-Yuh Saw, E-Shyong Tai, Xue Ling Sim, Jennifer E. Huffman, Ozren Polašek, Caroline Hayward, Goran Bencic, Igor Rudan, James F. Wilson, Peter K. Joshi, Akitaka Tsujikawa, Fumihiko Matsuda, Kristina N. Whisenhunt, Tanja Zeller, Peter J. van der Spek, Roxanna Haak, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Elisabeth M. van Leeuwen, Sudha K. Iyengar, Jonathan H. Lass, Albert Hofman, Fernando Rivadeneira, André G. Uitterlinden, Johannes R. Vingerling, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli T. Raitakari, Ginevra Biino, Maria Pina Concas, Tae-Hwi Schwantes-An, Robert P. Igo, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Nicholas G. Martin, Jamie E. Craig, Puya Gharahkhani, Katie M. Williams, Abhishek Nag, Jugnoo S. Rahi, Phillippa M. Cumberland, Cécile Delcourt, Céline Bellenguez, Janina S. Ried, Arthur A. Bergen, Thomas Meitinger, Christian Gieger, Tien Yin Wong, Alex W. Hewitt, David A. Mackey, Claire L. Simpson, Norbert Pfeiffer, Olavi Pärssinen, Paul N. Baird, Veronique Vitart, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M. van Duijn, Joan E. Bailey-Wilson, Terri L. Young, Seang-Mei Saw, Dwight Stambolian, Stuart MacGregor, Jeremy A. Guggenheim, Joyce Y. Tung, Christopher J. Hammond, Caroline C. W. Klaver
Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error
published pages: 834-848, ISSN: 1061-4036, DOI: 10.1038/s41588-018-0127-7
Nature Genetics 50/6 2019-04-18
2018 Shah Rupal, Li Q, Zhao W, Tedja MS, Tideman WL, Khawaja A, Fan Q, Yazar S, Williams KM, Verhoeven VJM, Xie J, Wang YX, Hess M, Nickels S, Lackner KJ, Pärssinen O, Wedenoja J, Biino G, Concas MP, Uitterlinden A, Rivadeneira F, Jaddoe VWV, Hysi PG, Sim X, Tan N, Tham Y, Sensaki S, Hofman A, Vingerling JR, Jonas JB, Mitchell P, Hammond CJ, Höhn R, Baird PN, Wong TY, Cheng C, Teo YY, Mackey DA, Williams C, Saw S, Klaver CCW, Guggenheim Jeremy, Bailey-Wilson JE, The CREAM Consortium
A genome-wide association study for corneal astigmatism: The CREAM Consortium
published pages: 127-142, ISSN: 1090-0535, DOI:
Molecular Vision vol. 24 2019-04-18

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