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The following table provides information about the project.
THE CHANCELLOR MASTERS AND SCHOLARSOF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
|Coordinator Country||United Kingdom [UK]|
|Total cost||3˙498˙219 €|
|EC max contribution||3˙498˙219 € (100%)|
1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
|Duration (year-month-day)||from 2019-10-01 to 2024-09-30|
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|1||THE CHANCELLOR MASTERS AND SCHOLARSOF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE||UK (CAMBRIDGE)||coordinator||3˙498˙219.00|
The development of longer lasting, higher energy density and cheaper rechargeable batteries represents one of the major technological challenges of our society, batteries representing the limiting components in the shift from gasoline-powered to electric vehicles. They are also required to enable the use of more (typically intermittent) renewable energy, to balance demand with generation. This proposal seeks to develop and apply new NMR metrologies to determine the structure and dynamics of the multiple electrode-electrolyte interfaces and interphases that are present in these batteries, and how they evolve during battery cycling. New dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) techniques will be exploited to extract structural information about the interface between the battery electrode and the passivating layers that grow on the electrode materials (the solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) and that are inherent to the stability of the batteries. The role of the SEI (and ceramic interfaces) in controlling lithium metal dendrite growth will be determined in liquid based and all solid state batteries. New DNP approaches will be developed that are compatible with the heterogeneous and reactive species that are present in conventional, all-solid state, Li-air and redox flow batteries. Method development will run in parallel with the use of DNP approaches to determine the structures of the various battery interfaces and interphases, testing the stability of conventional biradicals in these harsh oxidizing and reducing conditions, modifying the experimental approaches where appropriate. The final result will be a significantly improved understanding of the structures of these phases and how they evolve on cycling, coupled with strategies for designing improved SEI structures. The nature of the interface between a lithium metal dendrite and ceramic composite will be determined, providing much needed insight into how these (unwanted) dendrites grow in all solid state batteries. DNP approaches coupled with electron spin resonance will be use, where possible in situ, to determine the reaction mechanisms of organic molecules such as quinones in organic-based redox flow batteries in order to help prevent degradation of the electrochemically active species.
This proposal involves NMR method development specifically designed to explore a variety of battery chemistries. Thus, this proposal is interdisciplinary, containing both a strong emphasis on materials characterization, electrochemistry and electronic structures of materials, interfaces and nanoparticles, and on analytical and physical chemistry. Some of the methodology will be applicable to other materials and systems including (for example) other electrochemical technologies such as fuel cells and solar fuels and the study of catalysts (to probe surface structure).
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