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Giants through Time: Towards a Comprehensive Giant Planet Climatology

Total Cost €


EC-Contrib. €






 GIANTCLIMES project word cloud

Explore the words cloud of the GIANTCLIMES project. It provides you a very rough idea of what is the project "GIANTCLIMES" about.

variability    culmination    solar    patterns    anticipated    telescope    seasonal    decade    assembling    structure    record    cassini    giantclimes    regimes    single    chemical    unprecedented    planetary    chance    guises    webb    timescales    telescopes    missions    gas    serve    arrival    banded    uranus    ground    jovian    remote    laboratories    science    spans    models    decades    climatology    explore    environments    transport    spitzer    interpretive    predict    spectral    atmospheric    neptune    differences    discoveries    saturn    climates    fundamental    changing    understand    time    james    jwst    transformations    mission    first    planets    consists    assemble    shaping    sensing    giant    spectacular    transform    exploring    observations    juno    quasi    poorly    techniques    archive    world    storm    natural    global    radiative    extreme    outer    capability    benchmark    insights    reinforce    generation    climate    stratospheres    maps    ice    spatial    capitalise    continuous    data    cycles    eruptions    herschel    space    combined    paradigm    jupiter    forces    giants   

Project "GIANTCLIMES" data sheet

The following table provides information about the project.


Organization address
postcode: LE1 7RH

contact info
title: n.a.
name: n.a.
surname: n.a.
function: n.a.
email: n.a.
telephone: n.a.
fax: n.a.

 Coordinator Country United Kingdom [UK]
 Project website
 Total cost 1˙999˙815 €
 EC max contribution 1˙999˙815 € (100%)
 Programme 1. H2020-EU.1.1. (EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC))
 Code Call ERC-2016-COG
 Funding Scheme ERC-COG
 Starting year 2017
 Duration (year-month-day) from 2017-04-01   to  2022-03-31


Take a look of project's partnership.

# participants  country  role  EC contrib. [€] 
1    UNIVERSITY OF LEICESTER UK (LEICESTER) coordinator 1˙999˙815.00


 Project objective

Giant planets serve as natural laboratories to explore the processes shaping planetary climate. The next five years will likely transform our understanding of the extreme environments of the outer Solar System, with the culmination of the Juno and Cassini missions to Jupiter and Saturn and the arrival of a new capability for ice giant science (James Webb Space Telescope, JWST). GIANTCLIMES will capitalise on this chance of a generation by assembling the first comprehensive climatology of all four giants. My programme will provide insights that no single mission can: exploring atmospheric variability over long time spans using an unprecedented multi-decade archive of ground-based observations; new data from space telescopes and planetary missions; combined with world-leading spectral analysis techniques and interpretive models. GIANTCLIMES consists of three objectives:

1. CLIMATE CYCLES: Assemble the first quasi-continuous record of Jovian climate over three decades to identify natural patterns of atmospheric variability to predict spectacular storm eruptions and global-scale transformations of its banded structure. 2. STRATOSPHERES: Explore the changing stratospheres of seasonal Saturn and non-seasonal Jupiter over long timescales to develop a new paradigm for the radiative, chemical and transport processes shaping these poorly-understood atmospheric regimes. 3. ICE GIANTS: Provide the benchmark for understanding the fundamental differences between Ice Giant and Gas Giant climate via existing Spitzer and Herschel observations of Uranus and Neptune, and produce the highly-anticipated first spatial maps of their stratospheres using JWST.

These projects will explore planetary climates in all their guises, using comparative remote sensing studies to understand the forces defining their natural variability. New insights and discoveries from GIANTCLIMES will reinforce my leading role in the next generation of ambitious missions to explore the giant planets.


year authors and title journal last update
List of publications.
2020 R. Hueso, A. Sánchez-Lavega, J.F. Rojas, A.A. Simon, T. Barry, T. del Río-Gaztelurrutia, A. Antuñano, K.M. Sayanagi, M. Delcroix, L.N. Fletcher, E. García-Melendo, S. Pérez-Hoyos, J. Blalock, F. Colas, J.M. Gómez-Forrellad, J.L. Gunnarson, D. Peach, M.H. Wong
Saturn atmospheric dynamics one year after Cassini: Long-lived features and time variations in the drift of the Hexagon
published pages: 113429, ISSN: 0019-1035, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2019.113429
Icarus 336 2019-11-12
2019 Henrik Melin, L. N. Fletcher, T. S. Stallard, S. Miller, L. M. Trafton, L. Moore, J. O\'Donoghue, R. J. Vervack, N. Dello Russo, L. Lamy, C. Tao, M. N. Chowdhury
The H 3 + ionosphere of Uranus: decades-long cooling and local-time morphology
published pages: 20180408, ISSN: 1364-503X, DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2018.0408
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 377/2154 2019-11-12
2018 Arrate Antuñano, Leigh N. Fletcher, Glenn S. Orton, Henrik Melin, John H. Rogers, Joseph Harrington, Padraig T. Donnelly, Naomi Rowe‐Gurney, James S. D. Blake
Infrared Characterization of Jupiter\'s Equatorial Disturbance Cycle
published pages: , ISSN: 0094-8276, DOI: 10.1029/2018gl080382
Geophysical Research Letters 45/20 2019-11-12
2017 Leigh N. Fletcher, G.S. Orton, J.H. Rogers, R.S. Giles, A.V. Payne, P.G.J. Irwin, M. Vedovato
Moist convection and the 2010–2011 revival of Jupiter’s South Equatorial Belt
published pages: 94-117, ISSN: 0019-1035, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2017.01.001
Icarus 286 2019-11-12
2018 L. N. Fletcher, G. S. Orton, J. A. Sinclair, S. Guerlet, P. L. Read, A. Antuñano, R. K. Achterberg, F. M. Flasar, P. G. J. Irwin, G. L. Bjoraker, J. Hurley, B. E. Hesman, M. Segura, N. Gorius, A. Mamoutkine, S. B. Calcutt
A hexagon in Saturn’s northern stratosphere surrounding the emerging summertime polar vortex
published pages: , ISSN: 2041-1723, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06017-3
Nature Communications 9/1 2019-11-12
2019 Imke de Pater, R. J. Sault, Chris Moeckel, Arielle Moullet, Michael H. Wong, Charles Goullaud, David DeBoer, Bryan J. Butler, Gordon Bjoraker, Máté Ádámkovics, Richard Cosentino, Padraig T. Donnelly, Leigh N. Fletcher, Yasumasa Kasaba, Glenn S. Orton, John H. Rogers, James A. Sinclair, Eric Villard
First ALMA Millimeter-wavelength Maps of Jupiter, with a Multiwavelength Study of Convection
published pages: 139, ISSN: 1538-3881, DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/ab3643
The Astronomical Journal 158/4 2019-11-12
2019 Arrate Antuñano, Leigh N. Fletcher, Glenn S. Orton, Henrik Melin, Steve Milan, John Rogers, Thomas Greathouse, Joseph Harrington, Padraig T. Donnelly, Rohini Giles
Jupiter’s Atmospheric Variability from Long-term Ground-based Observations at 5 μ m
published pages: 130, ISSN: 1538-3881, DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/ab2cd6
The Astronomical Journal 158/3 2019-11-12
2017 L. N. Fletcher, G. S. Orton, J. A. Sinclair, P. Donnelly, H. Melin, J. H. Rogers, T. K. Greathouse, Y. Kasaba, T. Fujiyoshi, T. M. Sato, J. Fernandes, P. G. J. Irwin, R. S. Giles, A. A. Simon, M. H. Wong, M. Vedovato
Jupiter\'s North Equatorial Belt expansion and thermal wave activity ahead of Juno\'s arrival
published pages: 7140-7148, ISSN: 0094-8276, DOI: 10.1002/2017gl073383
Geophysical Research Letters 44/14 2019-11-12
2019 Patrick G.J. Irwin, Daniel Toledo, Ryan Garland, Nicholas A. Teanby, Leigh N. Fletcher, Glenn S. Orton, Bruno Bézard
Probable detection of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in Neptune’s atmosphere
published pages: 550-563, ISSN: 0019-1035, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2018.12.014
Icarus 321 2019-11-12
2019 Fletcher, Leigh N.; Kaspi, Yohai; Guillot, Tristan; Showman, Adam P.
How well do we understand the belt/zone circulation of Giant Planet atmospheres?
published pages: , ISSN: 0038-6308, DOI:
Space Science Reviews 1 2019-11-12
2018 Leigh N. Fletcher, H. Melin, A. Adriani, A. A. Simon, A. Sanchez-Lavega, P. T. Donnelly, A. Antuñano, G. S. Orton, R. Hueso, E. Kraaikamp, M. H. Wong, M. Barnett, M. L. Moriconi, F. Altieri, G. Sindoni
Jupiter’s Mesoscale Waves Observed at 5 μ m by Ground-based Observations and Juno JIRAM
published pages: 67, ISSN: 1538-3881, DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aace02
The Astronomical Journal 156/2 2019-11-12
2018 Jacob L. Gunnarson, Kunio M. Sayanagi, John J. Blalock, Leigh N. Fletcher, Andrew P. Ingersoll, Ulyana A. Dyudina, Shawn P. Ewald, Robert L. Draham
Saturn\'s New Ribbons: Cassini Observations of Planetary Waves in Saturn\'s 42N Atmospheric Jet
published pages: 7399-7408, ISSN: 0094-8276, DOI: 10.1029/2018gl078156
Geophysical Research Letters 45/15 2019-11-12
2017 J. A. Sinclair, G. S. Orton, T. K. Greathouse, L. N. Fletcher, C. Tao, G. R. Gladstone, A. Adriani, W. Dunn, J. I. Moses, V. Hue, P. G. J. Irwin, H. Melin, R. S. Giles
Independent evolution of stratospheric temperatures in Jupiter\'s northern and southern auroral regions from 2014 to 2016
published pages: 5345-5354, ISSN: 0094-8276, DOI: 10.1002/2017gl073529
Geophysical Research Letters 44/11 2019-11-12
2020 Fletcher, Leigh N.; de Pater, Imke; Orton, Glenn S.; Hofstadter, Mark D.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Roman, Michael; Toledo, Daniel
Ice Giant Circulation Patterns: Implications for Atmospheric Probes
published pages: , ISSN: 0038-6308, DOI:
Space Science Reviews 1 2019-11-12
2018 A. Adriani, M. L. Moriconi, F. Altieri, G. Sindoni, A. P. Ingersoll, D. Grassi, A. Mura, S. K. Atreya, G. Orton, J. I. Lunine, L. N. Fletcher, A. A. Simon, H. Melin, F. Tosi, A. Cicchetti, R. Noschese, R. Sordini, S. Levin, J. Bolton, C. Plainaki, A. Olivieri
Characterization of Mesoscale Waves in the Jupiter NEB by Jupiter InfraRed Auroral Mapper on board Juno
published pages: 246, ISSN: 1538-3881, DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aae525
The Astronomical Journal 156/5 2019-11-12
2019 Huazhi Ge, Xi Zhang, Leigh N. Fletcher, Glenn S. Orton, James Sinclair, Josh Fernandes, Tom Momary, Yasumasa Kasaba, Takao M. Sato, Takuya Fujiyoshi
Rotational Light Curves of Jupiter from Ultraviolet to Mid-infrared and Implications for Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets
published pages: 89, ISSN: 1538-3881, DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aafba7
The Astronomical Journal 157/2 2019-11-12
2019 J. A. Sinclair, G. S. Orton, J. Fernandes, Y. Kasaba, T. M. Sato, T. Fujiyoshi, C. Tao, M. F. Vogt, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, J. I. Moses, T. K. Greathouse, W. Dunn, R. S. Giles, F. Tabataba-Vakili, L. N. Fletcher, P. G. J. Irwin
A brightening of Jupiter’s auroral 7.8-μm CH4 emission during a solar-wind compression
published pages: 607-613, ISSN: 2397-3366, DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0743-x
Nature Astronomy 3/7 2019-11-12
2018 Amy A. Simon, Ricardo Hueso, Peio Iñurrigarro, Agustín Sánchez-Lavega, Raúl Morales-Juberías, Richard Cosentino, Leigh N. Fletcher, Michael H. Wong, Andrew I. Hsu, Imke de Pater, Glenn S. Orton, François Colas, Marc Delcroix, Damian Peach, Josep-María Gómez-Forrellad
A New, Long-lived, Jupiter Mesoscale Wave Observed at Visible Wavelengths
published pages: 79, ISSN: 1538-3881, DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aacaf5
The Astronomical Journal 156/2 2019-11-12
2019 Edward M. Molter, Imke de Pater, Michael T. Roman, Leigh N. Fletcher
Thermal Emission from the Uranian Ring System
published pages: 47, ISSN: 1538-3881, DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/ab258c
The Astronomical Journal 158/1 2019-11-12
2019 T. Cavalié, V. Hue, P. Hartogh, R. Moreno, E. Lellouch, H. Feuchtgruber, C. Jarchow, T. Cassidy, L. N. Fletcher, F. Billebaud, M. Dobrijevic, L. Rezac, G. S. Orton, M. Rengel, T. Fouchet, S. Guerlet
Herschel map of Saturn’s stratospheric water, delivered by the plumes of Enceladus
published pages: A87, ISSN: 0004-6361, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201935954
Astronomy & Astrophysics 630 2019-11-12
2019 Imke de Pater, R.J. Sault, Michael H. Wong, Leigh N. Fletcher, David DeBoer, Bryan Butler
Jupiter’s ammonia distribution derived from VLA maps at 3–37 GHz
published pages: 168-191, ISSN: 0019-1035, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2018.11.024
Icarus 322 2019-11-12
2019 Patrick G.J. Irwin, Daniel Toledo, Ashwin S. Braude, Roland Bacon, Peter M. Weilbacher, Nicholas A. Teanby, Leigh N. Fletcher, Glenn S. Orton
Latitudinal variation in the abundance of methane (CH4) above the clouds in Neptune\'s atmosphere from VLT/MUSE Narrow Field Mode Observations
published pages: 69-82, ISSN: 0019-1035, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2019.05.011
Icarus 331 2019-11-12
2018 Liming Li, X. Jiang, R. A. West, P. J. Gierasch, S. Perez-Hoyos, A. Sanchez-Lavega, L. N. Fletcher, J. J. Fortney, B. Knowles, C. C. Porco, K. H. Baines, P. M. Fry, A. Mallama, R. K. Achterberg, A. A. Simon, C. A. Nixon, G. S. Orton, U. A. Dyudina, S. P. Ewald, R. W. Schmude
Less absorbed solar energy and more internal heat for Jupiter
published pages: , ISSN: 2041-1723, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06107-2
Nature Communications 9/1 2019-11-12
2017 J. D. R. Pierel, C. A. Nixon, E. Lellouch, L. N. Fletcher, G. L. Bjoraker, R. K. Achterberg, B. Bézard, B. E. Hesman, P. G. J. Irwin, F. M. Flasar
D/H Ratios on Saturn and Jupiter from Cassini CIRS
published pages: 178, ISSN: 1538-3881, DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa899d
The Astronomical Journal 154/5 2019-11-12
2018 Joshua Tollefson, Imke de Pater, Philip S. Marcus, Statia Luszcz-Cook, Lawrence A. Sromovsky, Patrick M. Fry, Leigh N. Fletcher, Michael H. Wong
Vertical wind shear in Neptune’s upper atmosphere explained with a modified thermal wind equation
published pages: 317-339, ISSN: 0019-1035, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2018.04.009
Icarus 311 2019-11-12
2019 Arrate Antuñano, Teresa del Río-Gaztelurrutia, Agustín Sánchez-Lavega, Peter L. Read, Leigh N. Fletcher
Potential Vorticity of Saturn\'s Polar Regions: Seasonality and Instabilities
published pages: 186-201, ISSN: 2169-9097, DOI: 10.1029/2018je005764
Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 124/1 2019-11-12
2018 Julianne I. Moses, Leigh N. Fletcher, Thomas K. Greathouse, Glenn S. Orton, Vincent Hue
Seasonal stratospheric photochemistry on Uranus and Neptune
published pages: 124-145, ISSN: 0019-1035, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2018.02.004
Icarus 307 2019-07-18
2018 Leigh N. Fletcher, Magnus Gustafsson, Glenn S. Orton
Hydrogen Dimers in Giant-planet Infrared Spectra
published pages: 24, ISSN: 1538-4365, DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aaa07a
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 235/1 2019-07-18
2018 Henrik Melin, L.N. Fletcher, P.T. Donnelly, T.K. Greathouse, J.H. Lacy, G.S. Orton, R.S. Giles, J.A. Sinclair, P.G.J. Irwin
Assessing the long-term variability of acetylene and ethane in the stratosphere of Jupiter
published pages: 301-313, ISSN: 0019-1035, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2017.12.041
Icarus 305 2019-07-18
2018 R. K. Achterberg, F. M. Flasar, G. L. Bjoraker, B. E. Hesman, N. J. P. Gorius, A. A. Mamoutkine, L. N. Fletcher, M. E. Segura, S. G. Edgington, S. M. Brooks
Thermal Emission From Saturn\'s Polar Cyclones
published pages: 5312-5319, ISSN: 0094-8276, DOI: 10.1029/2018gl078157
Geophysical Research Letters 45/11 2019-07-18
2018 Doriann Blain, Thierry Fouchet, Thomas Greathouse, Thérèse Encrenaz, Benjamin Charnay, Bruno Bézard, Cheng Li, Emmanuel Lellouch, Glenn Orton, Leigh N. Fletcher, Pierre Drossart
Mapping of Jupiter’s tropospheric NH 3 abundance using ground-based IRTF/TEXES observations at 5 µm
published pages: 106-120, ISSN: 0019-1035, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2018.06.002
Icarus 314 2019-07-18
2017 Rohini S. Giles, Leigh N. Fletcher, Patrick G. J. Irwin, Glenn S. Orton, James A. Sinclair
Ammonia in Jupiter\'s Troposphere From High-Resolution 5 μm Spectroscopy
published pages: 10,838-10,844, ISSN: 0094-8276, DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075221
Geophysical Research Letters 44/21 2019-07-18
2017 O. Grasset, J. Castillo-Rogez, T. Guillot, L. N. Fletcher, F. Tosi
Water and Volatiles in the Outer Solar System
published pages: 835-875, ISSN: 0038-6308, DOI: 10.1007/s11214-017-0407-z
Space Science Reviews 212/1-2 2019-07-18
2017 Leigh N. Fletcher, Sandrine Guerlet, Glenn S. Orton, Richard G. Cosentino, Thierry Fouchet, Patrick G. J. Irwin, Liming Li, F. Michael Flasar, Nicolas Gorius, Raúl Morales-Juberías
Disruption of Saturn’s quasi-periodic equatorial oscillation by the great northern storm
published pages: 765-770, ISSN: 2397-3366, DOI: 10.1038/s41550-017-0271-5
Nature Astronomy 1/11 2019-07-18
2018 O. Mousis, D.H. Atkinson, T. Cavalié, L.N. Fletcher, M.J. Amato, S. Aslam, F. Ferri, J.-B. Renard, T. Spilker, E. Venkatapathy, P. Wurz, K. Aplin, A. Coustenis, M. Deleuil, M. Dobrijevic, T. Fouchet, T. Guillot, P. Hartogh, T. Hewagama, M.D. Hofstadter, V. Hue, R. Hueso, J.-P. Lebreton, E. Lellouch, J. Moses, G.S. Orton, J.C. Pearl, A. Sánchez-Lavega, A. Simon, O. Venot, J.H. Waite, R.K. Achterberg, S. Atreya, F. Billebaud, M. Blanc, F. Borget, B. Brugger, S. Charnoz, T. Chiavassa, V. Cottini, L. d\'Hendecourt, G. Danger, T. Encrenaz, N.J.P. Gorius, L. Jorda, B. Marty, R. Moreno, A. Morse, C. Nixon, K. Reh, T. Ronnet, F.-X. Schmider, S. Sheridan, C. Sotin, P. Vernazza, G.L. Villanueva
Scientific rationale for Uranus and Neptune in situ explorations
published pages: 12-40, ISSN: 0032-0633, DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2017.10.005
Planetary and Space Science 155 2019-07-18
2018 Patrick G. J. Irwin, Daniel Toledo, Ryan Garland, Nicholas A. Teanby, Leigh N. Fletcher, Glenn A. Orton, Bruno Bézard
Detection of hydrogen sulfide above the clouds in Uranus’s atmosphere
published pages: 420-427, ISSN: 2397-3366, DOI: 10.1038/s41550-018-0432-1
Nature Astronomy 2/5 2019-07-18
2017 L. N. Fletcher
Cycles of activity in the Jovian atmosphere
published pages: 4725-4729, ISSN: 0094-8276, DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073806
Geophysical Research Letters 44/10 2019-07-18

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